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WEALDEN IRON RESEARCH GROUP
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Found 883 results

                                

Site Name: 101, High Street Parish: Crawley
District: Crawley River Basin: Mole
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 2683 3678
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Medieval
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1995) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 15. pp. 2-4

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: 43 High Street Parish: Crawley
District: Crawley River Basin: Mole
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 2680 3650
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Medieval
Century: 14, 15, 16 Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1990) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 10. pp. 2-3
(for this site see page(s) 2-3)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: 5-7 Spencers Road Parish: Crawley
District: Crawley River Basin: Mole
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 2650 3650
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Medieval
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1989) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 9. pp. 2-8
(for this site see page(s) 2)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Abbotswood Parish: Stelling Minnis
District: Shepway River Basin: Great Stour
County: Kent OS Reference: TR 1674 4762
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: In the fields some 250m north west of Abbotswood, Stelling, the site of a bloomery is marked by an extensive scatter of early-type cinder. At TR 16744762 there is a low mound with much cinder and burnt clay, probably the working-place. (OS Record Card TR 14 NE 4)
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference: TR 14 NE 4
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Abinger (Shere) Hammer Parish: Abinger
District: Mole Valley River Basin: Mole
County: Surrey OS Reference: TQ 0970 4740
Site Type: Forge, Wire-mill Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17, 18 Earliest Date: 1557
Latest Date: 1787  
Dating evidence: Ownership of this site descends with the Manor of Paddington in Abinger. The forge was built before 1557, when it was sold by Owen Bray to Thomas Elrington (J. Pettitt to compiler, cit. Evelyn MSS, Christchurch, Oxford), who was licensed to cut wood locally in 1560 (BL Add Ch. 44558). Edward Elrington operated the forge in 1574; there are references to leases, water, timber and cinder offences, 1579-1613, in Evelyn MSS. Elrington sold the property in 1579 when Thomas Kelsey was tenant, and the latter was succeeded in 1589 by John Forest, of Etchingham, and John Levett, of Salehurst; Robert Nunne had the forge in 1609, and Francis Pellett by 1628 (Christchurch College, Oxford, Evelyn Deeds bundles 141-3). Listed as working in 1653 and 1664 and active c.1673 (J. Aubrey, Perambulation of Surrey (begun 1673): letter of John Evelyn to J.A.). Mr Dibble paid rent for the forge in 1703/4 (Evelyn MSS 240), and appears in the lists of 1717 and 1736. In 1734 Mr Delonsae paid the Poor Rate for the forge (Evelyn MSS 286). Other occupants were James Goodyear 1766-80, James Eade 1781-2, and Alexander Raby 1783-7 (Surrey History Centre, Rates P1/5/1, 2; Land Tax Q56/7). The forge was additionally described as a wire-mill when the lease was advertised for sale in 1777 (Gazetteer and Daily News Advertiser 6 Nov 1777).
Site Description: Bay L 180m H 2.7m/3m Portion towards S end levelled for modern house and garden.
Water system Pond level lowered to make watercress beds. Present stream flows through brick sluice 30m from N end.
Working area No trace, but forge bottoms and cinder occur near house.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: Yes
Bay Height (m.): 3 Bay Length (m.): 180
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Malden, H. E.. (1905) Victoria County History of Surrey, Vol. 2, [inc.] Industries. James Street. London
(for this site see page(s) 270-1)

Hulme, E. W.. (1929) Statistical History of the Iron Trade of England and Wales, 1717-1750. Transactions of the Newcomen Society. 9. pp. 12-35
(for this site see page(s) 22, 25)

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 445-6)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 309, 382)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 6)

Persons with known connections to this site: Bray, Owen - Owner ?-1557
Brown, Richard - Part-owner 1579-?
Delonsae, unknown - Poor Rate payer in 1734
Dibble, John - Tenant/ironmaster 1703-36?
Eade, James - forge master 1781-2
Elrington, Edward - Owner/ironmaster aft 1566-79
Elrington, Thomas - Owner/ironmaster 1557-aft 1566
Evelyn, Frederick - Owner 1767-87?
Evelyn, George - Owner 1640-99
Evelyn, John - Owner 1706-63
Evelyn, John - Owner 1763-7
Evelyn, John - Owner 1699-1706
Evelyn, Richard - Owner 1624-40
Forest, John - Co-lessee/ironmaster in 1589
Goodyear, James - Lessee/ironmaster 1766-80
Kelsey, Thomas - Tenant/ironmaster in 1579
Larber , Obrye - iron worker in 1571
Lees, Richard - forgeman in 1758
Levett, John - Co-lessee/ironmaster in 1589
Marchaunt, Hugh - iron worker in 1571
Masse, Steme - iron worker in 1571
Morgan, John - Owner ?-1618
Morgan, William - (Part-)owner 1579-?
Murrell, Thomas - forgeman in 1750
Nunne, Richard - Lessee/ironmaster in 1609
Parkins, Christopher - Owner 1618-24?
Pellett, Francis - Tenant/ironmaster in 1628
Raby, Alexander - Tenant/ironmaster 1783-7
Thornton, Harmen - iron worker in 1551 to 57

Site Name: Adam's Farm Parish: Buxted / Crowborough
District: Wealden River Basin: Ouse
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5030 2790
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Airman's Grave 1 Parish: Maresfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Ouse
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4578 2757
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date: 0
Latest Date: 0  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1998) Field Notes. Wealden iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 18. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 2)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Airman's Grave 2 Parish: Maresfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Ouse
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4581 2748
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Almonds Wood Parish: Mayfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5673 2501
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Cattell, C. S.. (1970) Preliminary research findings relating to the bloomery period of the iron industry of the upper basin of the eastern Rother (East Sussex). Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group. 4. 1. pp. 18-20
(for this site see page(s) 18-20)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Angle Wood Parish: Mayfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5698 2776
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Cattell, C. S.. (1970) Preliminary research findings relating to the bloomery period of the iron industry of the upper basin of the eastern Rother (East Sussex). Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group. 4. 1. pp. 18-20
(for this site see page(s) 18-20)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Ann Brook Parish: Danehill
District: Wealden River Basin: Ouse
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4262 2791
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: In the stream bank and stream bed, and immediately adjacent part of the field, on the west side of the Ann Brook. Tap slag noted.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology: Ashdown Sand
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : 150 Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery: WIRG Field Group
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2008) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 28. pp. 3-8
(for this site see page(s) 7-8)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Archer 1 Parish:
District: River Basin:
County: Site Type:
Period: Century:
Earliest Date: Latest Date:
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Ardingly Forge Parish: Ardingly
District: Mid-Sussex River Basin: Ouse
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 3340 2890
Site Type: Forge Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17 Earliest Date: 1559
Latest Date: 1702  
Dating evidence: John Bardyng, a hammerman of Ardingly, is mentioned in assize records in 1559 (Cockburn 1975) and in 1568 in Ardingly Parish Registers (Sussex Record Ser. 17 (1913) passim). The forge, which was owned by Francis Chalenor of Lindfield, was operated by Ninian Challenor of Cuckfield in 1574. Between 1656 and 1685 John Spence became tenant (WSRO Add. MSS 3893-5, cited in Bedwin 1976: 36), and operation is certain in 1653 and 1664. Ralph Drake was tenant in 1689 (ESRO SAS Abs. of private docs.: Denman 1935), demolition of the forge stated to have been in 1694 (WSRO Add Mss. 44,456). This is contradicted by its use by Ambrose Galloway in 1695-6 (BL Add. MSS 33,156). Pig iron from Waldron furnace was being worked up 1698-1702 (BL AddMs 33,156).
Site Description: Bay L 45m H 2.5m Breached by stream at N end.
Re-use Fulling mill.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 2.5 Bay Length (m.): 45
Excavation?: Yes CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details: Excavated 1975-6 in advance of destruction and submergaence under Ardingly reservoir; see published report (Bedwin 1976: 34-64).
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 408-9)

Bedwin, O. (1976) The excavation of Ardingly fulling mill and forge. Post-Medieval Archaeology. 10. pp. 34-64
(for this site see page(s) 34-64)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 309)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 6)

Persons with known connections to this site: Bardyng, John - hammerman 1558-66
Carye, John - iron worker in 1560
Chalenor, Francis - Owner 1559-91
Chalenor, Thomas - Owner 1591-1605
Chalenor, Thomas - Owner ?-1630
Challenor, Ninian - Lessee/ironmaster bef 1574-?
Challoner, Francis - Owner 1605-?
Chaloner, Thomas - Owner ?-1559
Demerowe, Nycholas - iron worker in 1560
Dipplie, Richard - iron worker in 1568
Drake, Ralph - Lessee bef 1689-94
Finch, John - iron worker in 1594
Finch, Richard - hammerman in 1660
Galloway, Ambrose - Lessee/ironmaster 1695-6
Growte, Charles - iron worker in 1563
Hewashe, Anthonye - iron worker in 1563
Homan, Nycholas - iron worker in 1560
Lerken, James - hammerman 1582-4
Lucar, Frances - ?iron worker in 1606
Millam, Anthony - hammerman 1601-38
Millam, Geoffrey - finer in 1639
Morrell, James - iron worker in 1583
Obbell, Frauncis - iron worker in 1563
Penfould, Edmund - iron worker in 1572
Pilbeam, Thomas - ?Owner ?-1684
Potter, Robert - finer in 1572
Simmons, John - hammerman in 1580
Simons, Thomas - forgeman in 1644
Spence, John - Lessee aft 1656-aft 1685
Tullett, Peter - hammerman in 1601
Vernys, James - collier in 1560

Site Name: Ardingly Furnace Parish: Ardingly
District: Mid-Sussex River Basin: Ouse
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 3370 2870
Site Type: Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16 Earliest Date: 1592
Latest Date: 1592  
Dating evidence: Francis Challoner's Post Mortem Inquisition notes 'a messuage and land belonging to it at Sauceland in Ardingly and certain buildings by the furnace lately erected upon the premisies' (Holgate 1927:31).
Site Description: Bay:
L 75m H pond in water/5.25m Forms present road. Projection at N end forms protective bank and possible loading platform.
Water System:
Spillway at N end takes present stream. Slight indication of wheelpit with shallow dry tail-ditch returning to stream.
Working area:
Scatter of glassy slag over area, on bay and in stream. Plain roofing tiles and bricks in stream.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 5.25 Bay Length (m.): 75
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Cattell, C. (1979) The 1574 lists of Wealden ironworks. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 117. pp. 161-72
(for this site see page(s) 161)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 309-10)

Holgate, M. S.. (1927) Sussex Inquisitions. Sussex Record Society vol 35. Lewes
(for this site see page(s) 13)

Persons with known connections to this site: Chalenor, Francis - Owner/ironmaster ?-1591
Chalenor, Thomas - Owner 1591-bef 1605?

Site Name: Argos Hill Parish: Mayfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5650 2740
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 284)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Ascotts Parish: Worth
District: Mid-Sussex River Basin: Medway
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 3600 3900
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1985) A Romano-British ironworking site at Crawley Down, Worth, Sussex. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 5. pp. 9-20
(for this site see page(s) 9-20)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Ashburnham (Dallington) Furnace Parish: Penhurst
District: Rother River Basin: Ashbourne
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6860 1710
Site Type: Furnace, Boring Mill Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17, 18, 19 Earliest Date: 1550
Latest Date: 1813  
Dating evidence: Built before 1554 by John Ashburnham (KHLC U1475/B3/6) and owned by him in 1574. The date could be as early as 1549, when Ashburnham was employing aliens (TNA E179/190/233). He was in dispute with a creditor in 1581-2 (BL Harl. 703, f.12b, TNA STAC 5/08/36). Sold in 1611 to William Relfe (ESRO ASH B488), in 1640 to John Gyles and Benjamin Scarlett (ASH B607), via Joan Gyles to Anthony May, her son (ASH B740). The furnace was recorded as working in 1653 and as discontinued but stocked in 1664. Guns were being cast here for George Browne in 1665 (TNA WO 47/7 f. 77v), who had agreed a lease of the furnace with Anthony May from Michaelmas 1664 (ESRO SAS-CO/1/714-718). Thomas and Maximilian Western occupied it 1696-1701 (ESRO ASH 1178 f. 94-5, 219). Contrary to earlier statements, the Crowley Hanbury partnership declined offers to take a lease of the furnace in the early eighteenth century, as from 1708 until the early 1720s accounts show the furnace to be in the hands of William Rea of Monmouth, and the other members of the (Foley) Forest of Dean partnership (Hereford RO E12/F/P5, partnership schedule). The furnace was managed locally for Rea, together with Westfield forge (q.v.), by Thomas Hussey. Iron sows were sent from the furnace to Bewdley, Worcs. (E12/F/V1/Bf/28 9; DFU5 18). Output in 1717 was 350 tons p.a. From about 1739, Ashburnham was occupied by the Crowleys, and from the 1750s until the 1790s Crowley & Co and their successors, Millington & Co, were casting guns for the Board of Ordnance, and for the merchant trade, at the furnace (ESRO ELT Dallington; Suffolk RO HAI/CD/2/3; Hodgkinson 1993b: 94 5; Brown 1994: 47). Incidental references until 1757 (ESRO SAS RF 15/25 - Fuller letterbooks) when the surviving run of yearly accounts begin (ESRO ASH 1815, 1817). The final years (1793-1813) are covered by less detailed accounts (ASH 1818, 1820, 1822-3). It closed in early 1813 (Beswick et al 1984: 226 7).
Site Description: Bay:
L 70m, H 2m/4m good condition; revetted in masonry to half height on downstream side. 23m from E end a stone and brick tunnel (now blocked) leads through bay to wheelpit; 23m from W end is a spillway with sluice gate.
Water System:
Pond; now dry, supplemented by pen ponds. Wheelpit tailrace culverted to join overspill stream which passed below working area to join Upper Forge pond 160m to S. Trackway to furnace fords overspill stream; several bears revet ford banks. W of spillway a now-dry leat from pond passed through or under bay to serve second working area. For the leat from Penhurst furnace see Beswick and Ennever.
Working Area 1:
Immediately below bay, served by wheelpit (see above). Some broken cannon moulds found (BWIRG 12, 7).
Working Area 2:
90m S of bay. Served by dry leat which was culverted under present stone-revetted causeway near 'Pay Cottage'. Wheelpit just S of causeway. Thence race ran through culvert and along present ditch to flow into head of Upper Forge pond 75m to S. Just before this point a bank runs along E side of tail-race, turning E at right angles to join W bank of main stream. This probably secured working area 2 from possible flooding from Upper Forge Pond. Bank contains many broken cannon moulds.
Scheduled Monument Number: SX 387 HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: Yes
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 4 Bay Length (m.): 70
Excavation?: Yes CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details: see Crossley (1977).
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hulme, E. W.. (1929) Statistical History of the Iron Trade of England and Wales, 1717-1750. Transactions of the Newcomen Society. 9. pp. 12-35
(for this site see page(s) 22)

Whistler, R. F.. (1888) Penhurst: being some account of its iron works, manor house, church etc.. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 36. pp. 1-18
(for this site see page(s) 3-6)

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 364-72)

Beswick, W and others. (1984) Ashburnham blast furnace: a definitive date for its closure. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 122
(for this site see page(s) 226-7)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 310-1, 382)

Crossley, D. W.. (1977) Ashburnham Furnace, Penhurst. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 12. pp. 7-8

Beswick, W. R. & Ennever, C. C.. (1981) The Penhurst-Ashburnham Leat (Aqueduct Channel). Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 1. pp. 4-7

King, P. W.. (1995) Ashburnham Furnace in the early 18th century. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 133. pp. 255-62

Brown, R. R.. (1993) Notes on Wealden furnaces in the records of the Board of Ordnance, 1660-1700 . Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. Second series, 13. pp. 20-30
(for this site see page(s) 21)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 3)

Persons with known connections to this site: Ades, Adrian - iron worker in 1595
Ades, John - iron worker in 1595
Ashburnham, George - Owner 1812-13
Ashburnham, John - Owner 1710-37
Ashburnham, John - Owner/ironmaster 1592-1611
Ashburnham, John - Owner 1737-1812
Ashburnham, John - Owner bef 1554-62
Ashburnham, John - Owner/ironmaster 1562-92
Ashburnham, John - Owner 1683-1710
Ashburnham, William - Owner in 1710
Banister, John - Manager/ironmaster c.1739-40
Benne, John - iron worker in 1550
Bourdell, John - iron worker in 1549
Browne, George - Lessee/ironmaster 1664-?
Chapleyn, Phyllypp - iron worker in 1549
Clerke, Guillam - iron worker in 1549
Crowley, Ambrose - Lessee/ironmaster c.1739-54
Crowley, John - Lessee/ironmaster 1754-5
Diamond, John - gun founder bef 1685
Diamond, Thorpe - founder/moulder in 1760
Dowlse, Nicholas - iron worker in 1576
Dowste, Frauncysce - iron worker in 1576
Duke, John - ?Tenant/ironmaster 1706-8
Frenchman, Sampson - iron worker in 1525 & 49
Fuller, James - iron worker in 1595
Gascoigne, Theodosia - Lessee/ironmaster 1755-bef 1782
Grewe, Phyllypp - iron worker in 1549
Griaunt , Clement - iron worker in 1552
Gyles, John - Owner/ironmaster 1640-55
Hart, John - gunfounder in 1676
Hoyse, Antony - iron worker in 1550
Hussey, Thomas - clerk/ironmaster 1708-17
Lambert, John - Lessee/ironmaster in 1574
Langleys, John - iron worker in 1550
Lemote, Peter - iron worker in 1595
Lemotte, John - iron worker in 1549 to 1576
Lenarde, James - iron worker in 1572
Mary, Nicholas - iron worker in 1550
May, Anthony - Owner aft 1655-71
Morrys, George - iron worker in 1550
Pelham, Anthony - Lessee in 1550
Pynyan, Gilbert - iron worker in 1572
Rea, William - Lessee 1708-17
Relfe, John - Owner/ironmaster 1639-40
Relfe, William - Owner/ironmaster 1611-39
Roberts, Joan - Owner 1655-?
Rummins, William - founder ?-1813
Scarlett, Benjamin - Co-owner/ironmaster 1640-55
Scarlett, Thomas - Co-owner ?-1655 & 1671-?
Sede, Mychaell - iron worker in 1572
Sellem, John - iron worker in 1572 to 95
Skinner, Richard - founder 1676-88
Tankerye, Roger - iron worker 1549-52
Tottoe, Adam - iron worker in 1576
Valeant, John - iron worker in 1549 to 52
Western, Maximilian - Co-lessee/ironmaster 1696-1701
Western, Thomas - (Co-)lessee/ironmaster 1677-1701
White, Simon - iron worker 1551-2
Wimble, William - founder 1623-38
la Mell, Stephyn - iron worker in 1550

Site Name: Ashburnham (Upper) Forge Parish: Ashburnham
District: Rother River Basin: Ashbourne
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6870 1610
Site Type: Forge, Boring Mill Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17, 18, 19 Earliest Date: 1572
Latest Date: 1828  
Dating evidence: Earliest reference is for 1572-3 (WSRO Lavington 830-1), to a forge of John Ashburnham, owner in 1574. He was in dispute with a creditor in 1581-2 (BL Harl. 703, f.12b, PRO STAC 5/08/36). Sold in 1611 to William Relfe (ESRO ASH B488), when George Littleboy was tenant, in 1640 to John Gyles and Benjamin Scarlett (ASH B607), then via Joan Gyles to Anthony May, her son (ASH B740). Working in 1653, but ruined in 1664, the forge was known as a boring mill by 1677 when Thomas Scarlett leased it to Thomas Western, ironmonger of London (ASH B983) and in 1683 (ASH B1084) after the Ashburnham re-purchase of the estate (ASH A159-161). The forge site remained a boring mill through the eighteenth century (ASH map 4385 of 1717; ASH 1815, 1817), until 1789. Reinstated as a forge about 1796 (ASH 1818) and used until 1828 (ASH 1833).
Site Description: Bay:
L 140m, H 3m/4m now road, so probably raised. Downstream side revetted with forge bottoms and cinder.
Water System:
At W end culvert through bay brings water along wooden trough 68cm wide and 30cm deep to wheelpit for undershot wheel. Tail-race passes under house ('Ammerbrook') to open ditch which joins main stream. At E end main stream passes under bay (road); slightly W of this a silted culvert comes from under a long low building (now cottage) built parallel to bay, and empties into stream. Local tradition of banked 4km channel following 30m contour from TQ 7030 1700 to forge or furnace is justified on ground and in documentary evidence (BWIRG 2, 4-7).
Working Area:
Two cottages built over culverts (perhaps tail-races) appear to be part of the works. Material more characteristic of a furnace are bears on roadside W of 'Ammerbrook' and scatter of glassy slag.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 4 Bay Length (m.): 140
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 364-70)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 310)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 5)

Persons with known connections to this site: Ashburnham, George - 1812-27
Ashburnham, John - Owner 1710-37
Ashburnham, John - Owner/ironmaster 1592-1611
Ashburnham, John - Owner 1737-1812
Ashburnham, John - ?Owner bef 1554-62
Ashburnham, John - Owner/ironmaster bef 1572-92
Ashburnham, John - Owner 1683-1710
Ashburnham, William - Owner in 1710
Carpynter, Samuel - ?forgeman in 1601
Crowley, Ambrose - Lessee/ironmaster c.1739-54
Crowley, John - Lessee/ironmaster 1754-5
Foldyth, William - ?forgeman in 1576
Gascoigne, Theodosia - Lessee/ironmaster 1755-bef 1782
Gyles, John - Owner/ironmaster 1640-55
Haine, William - hammerman in 1650
Hayne, William - hammerman 1650-61
Kyrrins, John - ?forgeman in 1580
Lambert, John - Lessee/ironmaster in 1574
Littleboy, George - forge master in 1611
May, Anthony - Owner aft 1655-71
Relfe, John - Owner/ironmaster 1639-40
Relfe, William - Owner 1611-39
Roberts, Joan - Owner 1655-?
Scarlett, Benjamin - Co-owner/ironmaster 1640-55
Scarlett, Thomas - Co-owner ?-1655 & 1671-?
Western, Maximilian - Co-lessee/ironmaster 1696-1701
Western, Thomas - (Co-)lessee/ironmaster 1677-1701

Site Name: Ashenplat Shaw Parrock 5 Parish: Hartfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4520 3440
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Tebbutt, C. F.. (1975) An abandoned medieval industrial site at Parrock, Hartfield. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 113. pp. 146-151
(for this site see page(s) 146-51)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Ashenplat Shaw Parrock 6 Parish: Hartfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4520 3470
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Tebbutt, C. F.. (1975) An abandoned medieval industrial site at Parrock, Hartfield. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 113. pp. 146-151
(for this site see page(s) 146-51)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Ashurst (Pilbeams) Forge Parish: Withyham
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5050 4030
Site Type: Forge Period: Modern
Century: 16 Earliest Date: 1574
Latest Date: 1597  
Dating evidence: The forge was first mentioned in 1574, owned by John Stace but worked by another, named only as Thomas (possibly Thomas Browne). In his will of 1590 Stace left his 'yronworke' to his brother, George, who, in 1592 leased 'Pilbeams Forge' to Richard Streatfield (KHLC U908/218). George Stace was involved in a dispute over delivery of iron at Tonbridge in 1597 (TNA REQ2/15/25). William Bassett had the forge in 1593 (TNA STAC 5/B90/39 13 Feb 35 Eliz 1; Awty 1989a: 33 8).
Site Description: Bay:
L 140m H irregular, 1-1.5m. Breached by Kent Water at N end and twice further S.
Working area:
Probably at N end where black soil occurs. Forge bottom and cinder in stream bed.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 1.5 Bay Length (m.): 40
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 231)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 311, 382)

Persons with known connections to this site: Bassett, William - Tenant/ironmaster in 1593
Stace, George - Owner 1591-aft 1597
Stace, John - Owner bef 1574-91
Streatfeild, Richard - Lessee 1592-1601

Site Name: Ashurst Forge 2 Parish: Ashurst
District: Sevenoaks River Basin: Medway
County: Kent OS Reference: TQ 5070 3910
Site Type: Forge Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: An unexplained system of ponds, banks and channels occurs for 100m along the W bank of the mill (furnace) tail-race, where large quantities of forge cinder and forge bottoms occur.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 311)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Ashurst Furnace Parish: Ashurst
District: Sevenoaks River Basin: Medway
County: Kent OS Reference: TQ 5070 3900
Site Type: Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16 Earliest Date: 1574
Latest Date: 1599  
Dating evidence: John Stace held the furnace as well as the forge in 1574. In 1588-90 Sir Walter Waller owned the furnace (Staffs. RO/D593/4/28/3 and 17); which was occupied by John Phillips of London. In 1599 Thomas Browne sold cannon at Ashurst Furnace (TNA E178/4143).
Site Description: Bay:
No remains, only possiblity being line of present main road.
Water System:
No identifiable remains.
Working Area:
No remains. Glassy slag and black soil in garden of Mill Place (site of mill).
Downstream at TQ 50703910 is small embanked pond (dry) with scatter of forge bottoms and cinder.
Re-use:
Corn mill on N side of road burnt down by 1934. Mill had dam and spillway across Medway upstream, with leat to small pond (under present railway station) and thence under road. This system possibly used for furnace.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: Yes
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 219)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 311, 382)

Persons with known connections to this site: Browne, Thomas - sold cannon at Ashurst Furnace in 1599
Phillips, John - Tenant/ironmaster bef 1588-aft 1590
Stace, John - Owner/ironmaster bef 1574-bef 1588
Waller, Walter - Owner bef 1588-aft 1590

Site Name: Ave Maria Wood, Parrock Parish: Hartfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4560 3440
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1990) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 10. pp. 2-3
(for this site see page(s) 2)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Axletree Nursery Parish: Peasmarsh
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 8743 2134
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date: 0
Latest Date: 0  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1998) Field Notes. Wealden iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 18. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 2)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Bacon Hollow Wood Parish: Warbleton
District: Wealden River Basin: Ashbourne
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6366 1689
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: Slag in stream bed and surface scatter on west bank of stream with some tap slag. Slaggy bankside extends +/- 15 m and is up to 5 m wide. Furnace material was detected by trawling the stream bed with an NdFeB magnet.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology: Site is immediately upstream of Tunbridge Wells Sand on the Wadhurst Clay. The 1:50000 geological sheet (319) appears to show this point on a fault. The stream bed is continuous consolidated rock, scoured clean by the stream.
Description of site vegetation: Ash, hazel, birch, hornbeam and elder over dense bramble with sedge.
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : 75 Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery: J. L. Prus
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2009) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. Second series, 29. pp. 3-6
(for this site see page(s) 4)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Badbrook Wood 1 Parish: Withyham
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5180 3370
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Badbrook Wood 2 Parish: Withyham
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5190 3380
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Badland Wood Parish: Ewhurst
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7739 2134
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 2
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Jones, G.. (1980) Badlands bloomery, Ewhurst. Recologea Papers. 7. 2. pp. 35-7

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1999) Romano-British iron production in the Sussex and Kent Weald: a review of current data. Historical Metallurgy. 33, no. 2. pp. 68-72
(for this site see page(s) 70)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 298)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Baldslow Place Parish: Westfield
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7980 1430
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 338)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Baltham Wood Parish: Heathfield and Waldron
District: Wealden River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6130 2365
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Cattell, C. S.. (1970) Preliminary research findings relating to the bloomery period of the iron industry of the upper basin of the eastern Rother (East Sussex). Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group. 4. 1. pp. 18-20
(for this site see page(s) 18-20)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Barden Furnace and Forge Parish: Speldhurst
District: Tunbridge Wells River Basin: Medway
County: Kent OS Reference: TQ 5487 4249
Site Type: Forge, Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17, 18 Earliest Date: 1574
Latest Date: 1761  
Dating evidence: Operated by David Willard in 1574 and certainly leased by Edmund and Abraham Willard from Thomas Smith in 1588-9, when ordnance was produced (Staffs. RO D593/S/4/28/3, 16, 17). It was in use in 1630 (KHLC Q/SRp/1/m.1r A79-86), when pots were being cast, and 1645 (TNA SP16/507/122), when John Browne was casting ordnance. In 1646 it was visited and described by Sir James Hope (Marshall 1958: 146-50). John Browne's trustees, Thomas Foley, Herbert Springate and Edward Herbert, reassigned his lease to George Browne and Alexander Courthope in 1660 (Hereford RO HRO/F/Loose papers). It was included in the 1653 list, but in 1664 there is a conflict between the list of that year which shows the furnace as ruined and stock accounts (KHLC TR 1295/62, 68) which imply otherwise. A memorandum of 1666 notes guns cast at the furnace that year (ESRO SAS/CO/1/717). It was in use in 1683 (KHLC U458/T2/1), 1717 (furnace only 100 tons p.a.), 1729 (ESRO SAS RF 15/26), 1736 (forge 40 tons) and 1761 (Sussex Weekly Advertiser 9 Mar. 1761). It was demolished before 1787 (Sc. Mus. Weale MSS). A forge at this site is mentioned in the list of 1736 (Science Mus Lib MS 371/1). Reference to William Bowen's 'iron and brass foundry' at Tonbridge in 1771 seems to confirm the suspected existence of bronze casting at the site (Bingley's Journal 7-14 Dec, 1771).
Site Description: Bay:
L 140m H 2m/3m by present road and probably much altered.
Water System:
Pond now dry. Impossible to distinguish between original system and that of later corn mill.
Working area:
Obscured by later mill. Plentiful glassy slag, shelly limestone and red plaintiles with square peg holes in bank of mill-race.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: Yes
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 3 Bay Length (m.): 140
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hulme, E. W.. (1929) Statistical History of the Iron Trade of England and Wales, 1717-1750. Transactions of the Newcomen Society. 9. pp. 12-35
(for this site see page(s) 21, 25)

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1998) 'Brass' casting at a Kent furnace. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. Second series, 18. pp. 48-51

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 219)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 311-2, 382)

Marshall, P. (1958) The Diary of Sir James Hope. Scottish History Soc., Miscellany IX. 3rd ser., vol. 50
(for this site see page(s) 127-97)

Brown, R. R.. (1993) Notes on Wealden furnaces in the records of the Board of Ordnance, 1660-1700 . Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. Second series, 13. pp. 20-30
(for this site see page(s) 21)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 4)

Persons with known connections to this site: Bowen, William - ?Lessee/ironmaster bef 1729-71
Browne, George - Co-lessee/ironmaster 1660-bef 1675
Browne, John - Lessee/ironmaster bef 1644-51
Chapman, John - Carrier in 1630
Courthope, Alexander - Co-Lessee/ironmaster 1660-?
Eldridge, Christopher - Carrier in 1630
Ferrers, Samuel - clerk in 1644-5
Foley, Thomas - Co-trustee/lessee 1651-60
Herbert, Edward - Co-trustee/lessee 1651-60
Hubbert, William - Carrier in 1630
Latter, William - Carrier in 1630
Phillips, John - gun founder in 1588
Smith, Thomas - Owner bef 1588-aft 1589
Springate, Herbert - Co-trustee/lessee 1651-60
Turner, William - pot founder 1650-80
Whitfeild, Robert - Carrier in 1630
Willard, Abraham - Co-lessee/ironmaster bef 1588-aft 1589
Willard, David - Lessee/ironmaster bef 1574-aft 1577
Willard, Edmund - Co-lessee/ironmaster bef 1588-aft 1589
Worseley, John - Carrier in 1630

Site Name: Bardown Parish: Ticehurst
District: Rother River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6630 2930
Site Type: Bloomery, Administrative Centre Period: Roman
Century: 02, 03 Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: The settlement covers about 3ha, on the south bank of the River Limden. It is divided into two areas, the western half being devoted to ironmaking activities and the eastern being residential. A dump of refuse (tap slag, cinder, furnace debris, domestic waste, etc.) extends for about 100m along the south bank of the stream. There is evidence of ore-digging on the north bank of the stream and in innumerable pits within 3km radius of the settlement. It appears to have been founded in the first half of the second century and to have continued for about 100 years. The buildings excavated (which included a standard military-style barrack block) were timber-framed. Ironmaking was carried out at the settlement itself throughout the second century but was discontinued after about AD 200, the industrial buildings being dismantled or abandoned and covered with a deep layer of domestic rubbish. Of the 28 CL BR stamped tiles found on the site, 24 were found in this layer. After about AD 200, ironmaking appears to have been continued at a series of satellite sites, 2-3km from the main settlement and connected with it by slag-metalled roads. So far seven such sites have been tentatively identified, of which one, Holbeanwood has been excavated. The settlement appears to have been abandoned and possibly dismantled in the first half of the third century. There was no evidence for destruction by burning in the last phase, although several buildings seem to have been destroyed by fire in earlier phases. There was slight evidence of casual reoccupation in later third century. No smelting furnaces were located during the excavations. However, two pit-type ore-roasting furnaces and a possible charcoal-burning hearth were discovered.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: Yes Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: Yes CLBR: Yes
Samian pottery: Yes Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details: see Cleere, H. (1970)
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 3
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1999) Romano-British iron production in the Sussex and Kent Weald: a review of current data. Historical Metallurgy. 33, no. 2. pp. 68-72
(for this site see page(s) 70)

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 296)

Cleere, H. (1970) The Romano-British industrial site at Bardown, Wadhurst. Sussex Archaeological Society. Lewes

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 303-4)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Barkfold (Idehurst) Forge Parish: Kirdford
District: Chichester River Basin: Arun
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 0290 2590
Site Type: Forge Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17 Earliest Date: 1584
Latest Date: 1657  
Dating evidence: Elucidating the ownership and tenancy of this site is complicated by the various branches of the Strudwick family in Kirdford. Owned by William Strudwick in 1584 (will of William Strudwick 1584; WSRO wills 13, p.160), it passed to his son and grandson, both William. It is possibly mentioned in the 1613 will of William Strudwick (transcription is unclear), who leased it to John Middleton and then to William Alderton and Henry Strudwick, whose relationship to William is obscure (TNA C2 25/57). Passing to the third William's son, Henry, he was partnered by William Westdean in 1634 (BL Add. MSS 39,386). The forge is mentioned in Henry Strudwick's will of 1657, in which it is left to his son, another William (TNA PROB 11/308/327). See Kenyon 1952: 238, 241n.
Site Description: Bay:
L probably originally 90m; now almost all levelled on W of stream. On E of stream c.12m remains. H 1.2m. Contains cinder.
Water System:
Pond dry, deeply silted. Existing spillway with brickwork of several periods on probable site of original. Sump area and ditch to W of stream probably indicate wheelpit and tail-race.
Working Area:
Much disturbed, probably when bay was levelled. Forge cinder in banks of stream.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 1.2 Bay Length (m.): 90
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 424)

Kenyon, G. H.. (1952) Wealden Iron. Sussex Notes and Queries. 13. 11 & 12. pp. 234-241
(for this site see page(s) 238, 241n)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 312)

Persons with known connections to this site: Alderton, William - Co-lessee 1614-?
Middleton, John - Lessee/ironmaster aft 1584-1614
Strudwick, Henry - Co-Lessee/ironmaster 1614-?
Strudwick, Henry - Owner 1616-62
Strudwick, William - Owner 1584-1613?
Strudwick, William - Owner c1613-16
Strudwick, William - Owner 1662-?
Strudwick, William - Owner ?-1584
Westdean, William - Partner/ironmaster in 1634

Site Name: Barkfold Furnace Parish: Kirdford
District: Chichester River Basin: Arun
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 0300 2690
Site Type: Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 17 Earliest Date: 1602
Latest Date: 1653  
Dating evidence: In use in 1602 when Robert Edsawe was given as the owner (see Kenyon 1952:238). The commitment by Henry Strudwick in 1652 to cast 60 tons of iron shot, and the order being partially complete the following year, implies that the furnace was working then (TNA SP 25/68 f.97; SP 18/39 f.62).
Site Description: Bay:
L 60m H 4m. Some dressed stone visible.
Working Area:
Depression, with bank to S, may be wheelpit; glassy slag in stream.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 4 Bay Length (m.): 60
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 424)

Kenyon, G. H.. (1952) Wealden Iron. Sussex Notes and Queries. 13. 11 & 12. pp. 234-241
(for this site see page(s) 238)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 312)

Persons with known connections to this site: Edsawe, Robert - Owner in 1602
Strudwick, Henry - ?Owner/ironmaster bef 1652-62

Site Name: Barnhorne Parish: Bexhill
District: Rother River Basin: Ashbourne
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7020 0750
Site Type: Bloomery (unsure) Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: place name evidence only
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 372)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Bassetts Farm Parish: Wadhurst
District: Wealden River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6060 3042
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Cattell, C. S.. (1970) Preliminary research findings relating to the bloomery period of the iron industry of the upper basin of the eastern Rother (East Sussex). Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group. 4. 1. pp. 18-20
(for this site see page(s) 18-20)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Bassetts Furnace Parish: Hartfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4680 3740
Site Type: Furnace Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence: Evidence has yet to be found for a connection with William Bassett, who held Ashurst Forge.
Site Description: Bay:
Existence uncertain; possibly on line of present road to Bassets Manor, at TQ 46703750.
Water System:
Possibly by long leat, but confused by that of later mill.
Working Area:
Glassy slag occurs in S bank of stream under 0.75m of silt, and in grass field and shaws on S side.
Re-use:
Corn mill.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E.. (1939) Lost mills on the Medway. Sussex County Magazine. 13. pp. 531

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 312)

Herbert, B. K.. (1983) Bassetts blast furnace. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 3. pp. 36-42

Awty, B. G.. (1989) A new forgemaster, William Bassett, and an old name, Grubsbars, for Crowborough forge. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 9. pp. 33-38
(for this site see page(s) 37)

Persons with known connections to this site: Bassett, William - ?ironmaster c.1593

Site Name: Bates Farm (Wittersham Manor) Parish: Wittersham
District: Ashford River Basin: Rother
County: Kent OS Reference: TQ 8887 2671
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: 02, 03, 01 Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence: 45 sherds - East Sussex ware, grey coloured ware with flint and grog temper, fine grey ware, small frag. of possible Samian ware
13 coins indeterminate type 1st-3rd century
Site Description: Pasture
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: Yes Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details: 2 x 2m trench to investigate area of relatively high electrical resistance, reduced to 1 x 2m, depth 0.56m; 2.9kg of iron slag
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology: Wadhurst Clay
Description of site vegetation: Grass
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery: Hastings Area Archaeological Research Group
References: Burgess, S.. (2007) A Roman Site in Wittersham. HAARG Journal. New Series 23
(for this site see page(s) 1-3)

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2009) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. Second series, 29. pp. 3-6
(for this site see page(s) 4-5)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Batsford Parish: Warbleton
District: Wealden River Basin: Ashbourne
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6280 1560
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Tebbutt, C. F.. (1980) Recent Field-work. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 17. pp. 15-19
(for this site see page(s) 16)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Batsford (Clippenham) Furnace Parish: Herstmonceux
District: Wealden River Basin: Ashbourne
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6310 1530
Site Type: Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16 Earliest Date: 1571
Latest Date: 1591  
Dating evidence: Built in 1571 by Thomas Glydd and Simon Colman on land leased from Gregory Fiennes, Lord Dacre. Glydd was the occupier recorded in 1574, although one version of the list does place him with Colman, another version mistakenly records Glydd as owner. Colman assigned the lease to Herbert Pelham in 1577 without Dacre's knowledge (BL Add. Ch. 30187; TNA REQ2/34/49; APC X, 176, 190). The furnace is referred to in the boundary-clause of a land transaction of 1591 as 'a watercourse from Batsford Furnace to Chilthurst Bridge', not indicating whether it was in operation (ESRO AMS 1981).
Site Description: Bay:
L 85m H 4m/4m breached by stream SW end.
Water System:
Pen pond 240m upstream (bay L 80m H 2.5m).
Working Area:
Wheelpit at SW end in present stream. (Excavated 1978:Bedwin 1980:89-112.)
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: Yes
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 4 Bay Length (m.): 85
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 360)

Bedwin, O. (1980) The excavation of a late 16th century blast furnace at Batsford, Herstmonceux, East Sussex, 1978. Post-Medieval Archaeology. 14. pp. 89-112

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 312)

Persons with known connections to this site: Colman, Simon - Co-lessee 1571-7
Fiennes, Gregory - Owner 1571-94?
Fiennes, Margaret - Owner ?1594-?
Glydd, Thomas - Builder/ Occupier 1571-7
Pelham, Herbert - Lessee/ironmaster 1577-?

Site Name: Battle Barn Farm Parish: Westfield
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7822 1657
Site Type: Bloomery slag scatter Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: "A few cinders found here" (Ordnance Survey record card, 1951, citing E. Curwen; Antiquity no. TQ71NE12).
Likely to be slag from a road, probably between Beauport Park and Oaklands Park (ex inf. David Staveley).
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Bayham Forge Parish: Lamberhurst
District: Tunbridge Wells River Basin: Medway
County: Kent OS Reference: TQ 6420 3660
Site Type: Forge Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17 Earliest Date: 1526
Latest Date: 1667  
Dating evidence: William Wybarne was the tenant of the monastic forge in the 1520s (TNA SC12/18/60), and he is listed as having the farm of the forge in late 1526 in a valuation of the manors belonging to Cardinal College, Oxford (Christchurch Coll. Archives DP/iv/b/1). A Mr Wybarne had ironworks with alien employees in 1544 (Archives of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster 12261) which are likely to have been at Bayham. Ownership by the Lords Montague began in 1530 with the granting of the manor of Bayham to Lady Lucy Browne who bequeathed it to William FitzWilliam, Earl of Southampton, and his half-brother, Anthony Browne, the latter assuming full ownership in 1542. It remained in the hands of the family until 1608 (will of Anthony Montague, 1592 - TNA PROB 11/21/22 refers only to 'my ironworks' - cf. Imbhams furnace also), tenanted by John Porter of Battle in 1574 and 1603 (Jack 1981:10 citing TNA E112/127/249). Purchased by Stephen Barnham in 1608 (CKS U840/T5), it passed by marriage and inheritance to the Dobell family of Streat. It was acquired by Walter Covert and Samuel Gott in 1654 (Dunkin 1914, 29), Walter Dobell leasing the forge to Humphrey Tuckey in 1665. George Browne was tenant in 1654 (CKS U840/T5), acquiring the ownership in 1665 (Straker 1931a:268), co-partner in 1668 with Alexander Courthope and others (ESRO DYK 609, 611, CKS U609/T3). It is recorded as working in 1653 and 1667. A Private Act of Parliament (13 Anne c.20 1714) enabled Ambrose, the son of George Browne, to sell the property, by which date it had ceased to operate.
Site Description: Bay:
L 100m, H pond in water/3m
Carries road to Bayham Abbey mansion.
Water System:
Spillway at S end.
Working area:
Converted to ornamental gardens, now derelict. Flowerbeds contain much forge cinder and some glassy slag. Cinder also occurs in N bank of stream.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 3 Bay Length (m.): 100
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 268)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 313)

Jack, Sybil M.. (1981) Sources for the History of the Iron Industry in the PRO, Pt 2. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. Second series, 1. pp. 7-11
(for this site see page(s) 9-10)

Eeles, H. S.. (1947) Frant - A Parish History. Courier. Tunbridge Wells
(for this site see page(s) 133-4)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 6)

Dunkin, E. H. W.. (1914) Sussex Manors, Advowsons etc. vol. 1 A-L. Sussex Record Society Vol. 19. Lewes
(for this site see page(s) 29)

Persons with known connections to this site: Barnham, Elizabeth - (Nominal) Owner 1620-40?
Barnham, Martin - Owner 1608-20
Barnham, Stephen - Owner in 1608
Bennett, Gilham - worked at the forge and as a priest in 1544
Browne, Anthony - Owner 1548-92
Browne, Anthony - Owner 1534-48
Browne, Anthony-Maria - Owner 1592-1608
Browne, George - Lessee 1654-65 later Owner/ironmaster 1665-75
Colleyn, Nicholas - iron worker in 1550
Courthope, Alexander - Co-lessee 1668-81?
Covert, Walter - Co-lessee 1654-65
Dobell, Walter - Owner 1661-94
Dobell, Walter - Owner 1640-61
Dobell, Walter - (De facto) owner 1620-40
Dyke, William - Partner 1668-81?
Galys, William - Owner in 1525
Gott, Samuel - Co-lessee 1654-65
Holmes , Gilham - working at the forge in 1544
Neville, Lucy - Owner 1530-4
Ongerfeld, John - iron worker in 1543 & 50
Pavye, Anthonye - iron worker in 1572
Porter, John - Lessee/ironmaster 1574-aft 1603
Porter, John - Lessee/ironmaster ?-1574
The Crown - Owner 1525-30
Tollett , Frauncys - working at the forge in 1544
Tuckey, Humphrey - Lessee/ironmaster in 1665
Wybarne, William - Lessee/ironmaster 1525-49

Site Name: Beauport Park Parish: Battle
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7860 1460
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: 02, 03 Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence: Coins from reigns of Trajan, Hadrian, Domitian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Lucilla, Commodus, Julia Domna, Severus Alexander and Decius
Samian pottery
East Sussex ware
Oxfordshire white and red wares
New Forest fine wares
Site Description: An enormous slag and refuse bank, covering nearly 1ha, was quarried away in the nineteenth century by the County Highways Surveyor, at a rate of 2,000 - 3,000m3 a year for nearly ten years. Finds from the slag heap during this work and subsequently have indicated a date range from the end of the first century to the first half of the third.
The only part of the large site, covering at least 5ha, that has been excavated is a well-preserved six-room bath-house of military type. This has to date produced about 1,600 tiles with the CLBR stamp of the Classic Britannica. The bath-house was sited in the 'industrial' part of the settlement, doubtless for reasons of safety.
Considerable evidence of ore-roasting and smelting has resulted from trial excavations and from earth-moving operations during the construction of the golf course. This was situated between the slag heap and the presumed 'residential' area of the settlement.
Excavations during 1980 around the bath-house produced post-holes which seem to form part of a pre-Roman roundhouse. So far, no pottery or other finds have confirmed this indication of a pre-Roman phase at Beauport Park.
Scheduled Monument Number: SX 383 HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: Yes
Samian pottery: Yes Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 4
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Brodribb, G. and Cleere, H. (1988) The Classis Britannica Bath-house at Beauport Park, East Sussex. Britannia. 19

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1999) Romano-British iron production in the Sussex and Kent Weald: a review of current data. Historical Metallurgy. 33, no. 2. pp. 68-72
(for this site see page(s) 70)

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 330-7)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 295)

Rock, J.. (1879) Ancient Cinderheaps in East Sussex. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 29. pp. 167-180
(for this site see page(s) 168-74)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Beckley (Conster) Furnace and Forge Parish: Beckley
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 8360 2120
Site Type: Forge, Furnace, Boring Mill Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17, 18 Earliest Date: 1587
Latest Date: 1771  
Dating evidence: The forge was built by Edmund Hawes of Robertsbridge and Richard Mullinax of Brede in 1587 (ESRO RYE/1/5/109). The furnace was in use by 1653, run with the forge by Peter Farnden the elder (ESRO Dunn 27/2). James Payton of Beckley was described as forgeman in his will of 1656 (TNA, PROB 11/267). Peter Gott (grandson of Peter Farnden the elder) took a 2/7 share that year (ESRO AMS/5442/4/12) but the forge was out of use by 1664, when the furnace was listed as discontinued but re-stocked. In his will, dated 1675, of which Peter Farnden the younger was an executor, John Roberts, of Beckley, described himself as a founder (TNA PROB 11/366/49). In a codicil of 1681, Roberts, by then of Salehurst, left the forge and furnace to his wife, Elizabeth. The Farnden involvement at the furnace (ESRO DUN 27/4, 27/6) ended after the death of Peter Farnden the younger (DUN 46/9) in 1681. In 1692 it was in the hands of Peter Gott and government shot and shells were cast here for William Benge (TNA WO 51/46 f. 171r). In 1715 Samuel Gott was operating the furnace (DUN 46/12) whose output in 1717 was 200 tons; Gott left the furnace to his brother, Maximilian, in 1724. It was marked on Budgen's map of 1724. In the 1740s the furnace was run by the Harrison-Legas partnership (Guildhall MSS 3736: ESRO SAS RF 15/25), and in 1787 it was out of use but still standing (Sc. Mus. Weale MSS). See also ESRO D165, Box 11, for a sketch of the furnace buildings (1746), and a reference to the furnace pond in water (1771).
Site Description: Bay:-
L 165m
H Main part levelled to 70cm; N and S ends 3m. Short projection to E along N bank of Tillingham river.
Water System:
Present course of river is that of the forge and boring mill tail-races. Ditch S of Mill House garden probably the furnace tail-race.
Working area:
Several large morticed timbers in river bed probably form part of the forge wheelpit. Much boring swarf and forge cinder in river. At N end (Mill House garden) is a low circular mound behind the bay, probably the furnace base with cast-iron slab 1.25m x 50cm x 15cm and much glassy slag.
Re-use:
Corn mill (but possibly contemporary) served by leat from upstream.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: Yes
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 0.7 Bay Length (m.): 165
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hulme, E. W.. (1929) Statistical History of the Iron Trade of England and Wales, 1717-1750. Transactions of the Newcomen Society. 9. pp. 12-35
(for this site see page(s) 22)

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 348-9)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 313, 382)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 3, 5)

Persons with known connections to this site: Benge, William - tenant/ironmaster in 1692
Browne, Francis - Supplier of wood in 1677
Busbridge, Anna - Part-owner 1681-?
Colman, Symon - pot founder bef 1650
Dobell, Peter - Part Owner ?-1690
Farnden, Lucy - Part-owner 1681-bef 1690
Farnden, Peter - Part-owner/ironmaster 1653-81
Farnden, Peter - Owner/ironmaster ?-1653
Gott, Maximilian - Owner 1724-35
Gott, Peter - Lessee/ironmaster 1683-94; (de facto) owner 1694-1712
Gott, Samuel - Owner/ironmaster 1712-24
Gott, William - Owner 1735-41
Harrison, William - Partner 1741-5
Hawes, Edmund - ironmaster in 1587
Hodger, John - Clerk in 1653
Hussey, Thomas - Ironmaster 1724-35
Legas, John - Ironmaster 1735-52
Mullinax, Richard - ironmaster in 1587
Payton, James - forgeman in 1656
Pierse, Elizabeth - Supplier of wood in 1715
Roberts, Elizabeth - Part-owner 1681-?
Roberts, John - Founder in 1675; Co-owner/ironmaster 1677-81
Russell, Thomas - clerk bef 1681
Smersall, Samuel - clerk aft c.1724-35, manager 1735-bef 1750
Tapsell, Richard - Ironmaster 1752-65

Site Name: Bedgebury Forge Parish: Goudhurst
District: Tunbridge Wells River Basin: Medway
County: Kent OS Reference: TQ 7270 3570
Site Type: Forge Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence: No reference known; all sources mention the furnace.
Site Description: Bay:
Mainly destroyed. Possible part survives as 22m long bank between disused railway and stream; faint signs of W end on road leading to Bedgebury Furnace. Present 'Forge Farm' house probably occupies remainder of bay and working area; has pond-like meadow to S. Remainder of bay and all cinder probably removed to construct nearby railway bank.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 282)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 313-4)

Persons with known connections to this site: Degoye, Petar - iron worker in 1572
Fowndryng, John - iron worker in 1543
Michell, John - iron worker in 1572
Myllam, John - iron worker in 1572
Nonkell, Peter - iron worker in 1572
Ponynges, John - iron worker in 1572
Sherlowe, James - iron worker in 1543

Site Name: Bedgebury Furnace Parish: Cranbrook
District: Tunbridge Wells River Basin: Medway
County: Kent OS Reference: TQ 7390 3470
Site Type: Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17 Earliest Date: 1574
Latest Date: 1677  
Dating evidence: Owned by Sir Alexander Culpepper in 1574 and 1588, when it was operated by his son Anthony; the furnace was operated by John Dunnednoll of Lamberhurst in 1590 (Staffs. RO D593/S/4/28/3, 17). According to a note of 1843 with Courthope MSS 715, Peter Courthope purchased the furnace in 1613, John Browne was casting there in 1637, when there were complaints from Cranbrook about his consumption of wood (TNA SP 16/363/55-6). George Browne was in partnership with the Foleys in 1657, when Alexander Courthope had become the owner (Hereford RO Foley E/12//PF5/437). The list of 1667 notes it as having been discontinued before 1664 but re-stocked for the Second Dutch War; Courthope and Browne made an agreement in 1664 with Thomas Culpeper, John Rabson and Elias Blewett to cast guns (KHLC TR1259/71), and guns were cast there in 1665 and 1673-7 (KHLC TR1259/62; ESRO Courthope MSS 715/7).
Site Description: Bay: L 125m H 3m/4m. Breached by stream at SW end. Ramps at SW end and centre leading to working area.
Working area: At NE end a scatter of bricks and tiles; top of 25cm x 25cm wooden post in situ. At SW end a brick floor of building 34m x 15m, perhaps of later date. Nearby Furnace Farm house probably contemporary.
Scheduled Monument Number: KT 291 HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: Yes
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 4 Bay Length (m.): 125
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 282)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 314)

Brown, R. R.. (1993) Notes on Wealden furnaces in the records of the Board of Ordnance, 1660-1700 . Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. Second series, 13. pp. 20-30
(for this site see page(s) 21)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 4)

Persons with known connections to this site: Austen, Robert - filler in 1587
Beawshaw, Mathew - iron worker in 1550
Blewett, Elias - Co-tenant/founder in 1664
Bridger, Edward - forgeman in 1654
Browne, George - Lessee/ironmaster 1657-75
Browne, John - Lessee/ironmaster bef 1637-51
Browne, Thomas - Co-lessee and co-landlord in 1664
Brynger, Gosvyn - iron worker in 1541 to 4
Buke, Olyver - iron worker in 1550
Colepeper, Anthonie - ironmaster c.1587-8; owner 1599-1613
Courthope, Alexander - Owner/ironmaster 1660-?
Courthope, Peter - Owner 1613-57
Crane, John - iron worker in 1541
Culpeper, Anthony - Owner 1599-1619
Culpeper, Thomas - Owner c.1660-4; Co-tenant in 1664
Culpeper, William - Owner 1619-c.1660
Culpepper, Alexander - Owner bef 1574-99
Dale, John - iron worker in 1541
Demont, Robert - moulder in 1674
Diamond, John - gunfounder in 1655; 'forgeman of Bedgebury furnace' 1657-60
Dunnednoll, John - Lessee in 1590
Frerend, John - iron worker in 1543 & 4
Hellen, Phillip - iron worker in 1572
Lewis, Peter - founder in 1588
Light, Easter - iron worker in 1572
Peerson, John - iron worker in 1572
Rabson, John - Co-tenant in 1664
Saddler, Edmund - iron worker in 1543 & 4
Sprynget, John - iron worker in 1541 to 50
Stone, unknown - iron worker in 1541
Walter, Powles - iron worker in 1541 to 4
Weston, Burkley - iron worker in 1543 & 4
Whyte, Peter - iron worker 1541 to 72
a Castell, William - iron worker in 1550
unknown, Jasper - joiner in 1550

Site Name: Beech Furnace Parish: Battle
District: Rother River Basin: Asten
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7280 1670
Site Type: Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17, 18 Earliest Date: 1568
Latest Date: 1737  
Dating evidence: Tentatively associated by Schubert (1957:367-8) with Richard Wekes, supplier of pig to Robertsbridge forge from 1568 (KHLC U1475/B3/10), this reference is probably to Netherfield Furnace. The first firm reference is in 1574 when the furnace was held by Thomas Hay of Hastings. In use in 1653, it was discontinued but re-stocked in 1664. In 1671 William Hawes held 'Beechers' with ironworks: BL Add. Ch. 66693 (Survey of Bodiam). m.9. In 1692 government shot was cast here for William Benge (TNA WO 51/46 f. 171r). The sale, in 1702, of wood belonging to Lord Montague in Battle to Richard Hay, including the right to make charcoal, suggests Hay was operating the furnace himself (ESRO, SAS-BA/148). Underwood from Great and Little Beech Woods, sold to Jarrett Holloway, gunfounder of Salehurst in 1711, was probably for use at this site. Production was 120 tons in 1717 and it was marked on Budgen's map of 1724. The furnace was leased by Richard Hay to Lord Ashburnham and Sir Thomas Webster in 1724 (Straker 1931a:325, cit. Battle Abbey Charters). Webster's operations are mentioned in a Fuller letter of 1730 (ESRO SAS RF 15/28). It is unlikely that it was in blast after 1740 when Sir Thomas Webster covenanted with the Jukes brothers not to use the furnace thereafter (Huntington Library, San Marino, HEH BA vol 69; 72). The furnace was out of use by 1756 (ESRO ASH A197) but had probably not worked since 1737 when Thomas Webster gave it up so as not to compromise the sources of raw materials for Robertsbridge furnace (Whittick 1992, 34).
Site Description: Bay:
Curved L 130m H 2m/3.5m. Breached by present main stream at NE end. Overspill channel W end.
Water System:
Obscured by later mill. Present main stream after passing through bay cuts across valley to SW to join overspill stream. From this, near NE end of bay, a culverted channel once flowed SE to join main stream. Pond dry.
Working area:
Furnace probably between present main stream and bay; Bear on bay just SW and another just NE of stream. Large slag heap in NE bank of strea SE of farm road.
Re-use:
Corn mill.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: Yes
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 3.5 Bay Length (m.): 130
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Hulme, E. W.. (1929) Statistical History of the Iron Trade of England and Wales, 1717-1750. Transactions of the Newcomen Society. 9. pp. 12-35
(for this site see page(s) 22)

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 325-6)

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1986) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 6. pp. 3-6
(for this site see page(s) 4-6)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 314, 383)

Whittick, C. H. C.. (1992) Wealden iron in California. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 12. pp. 29-62
(for this site see page(s) 34-5, 43-4)

Teesdale, E. B.. (1984) The Queen's Gunstonemaker. Lindel Publishing Co.. Seaford
(for this site see page(s) 36-7)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 3)

Persons with known connections to this site: Ashburnham, John - Lessee 1724-33
Benge, William - tenant/ironmaster in 1692
Christmas, John - mine drawer in 1728
Christmas, John - mine drawer in 1728
Christmas, John - mine drawer in 1728
Diamond, John - gun founder between 1685 and 1687
Hart, William - moulder 1728-32, mine digger 1729
Hawes, William - Ironmaster in 1671
Hay, John - Owner/ironmaster 1664-90
Hay, John - Owner ?-1605
Hay, Richard - Owner 1690-1737 ironmaster 1690-1724
Hay, Thomas - Owner bef 1574-?
Hay, William - Owner 1605-64
Holloway, Jarrett - ?Lessee/ironmaster in 1711
Johnson, Thomas - founder and miner in 1732
Lennard, Lawrence - mine drawer 1728-31
Mansor, James - miner in 1732
Mason, Richard - mine drawer 1728-31
Standen, Elias - miner 1728-9, founder 1729-30
Standen, James - founder 1728-9
Venus, Richard - mine drawer in 1728
Webster, Thomas - Lessee 1724-37
Western, Maximilian - Lessee/ironmaster in 1708

Site Name: Beech Wood, Beeches Farm Parish: Isfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Ouse
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4560 2050
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: anon.. (1972) Investigations by the Buxted team. Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 3. pp. 10-12
(for this site see page(s) 12)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Beechbrook Wood Parish: Westwell
District: Ashford River Basin: Great Stour
County: Kent OS Reference: TQ 9834 4595
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Iron Age
Century: 01, 1BC Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details: Two possible bowl furnace bases were identified, each with a similar sized pit beside it. The function of these adjacent pits could be for tapping the slag from the furnace. The southernmost pair of features were both circular in shape, bowl shaped, and measured 0.7 m in diameter and 0.12-0.14 m in depth. Both were filled with charcoal rich primary fills, the remains of fuel, and above this slag rich material. There was much scorching around the edges. More of another pair remained. Feature 255 contained a sequence of seven fills. Again, at the base a rich charcoal fill almost certainly represented the remains of the fuel and the primary phase of firing and use. Above this, the relined clay base of the furnace was scorched red towards the top. Deposit 518, part of the furnace base along with 775 had been vitrified to a hard blueish state and indicates use over a period of time resulting in a congealed mass (Poole 2006). Above this, two charcoal rich fills also contained slag and fragments that probably came from the exterior of the furnace superstructure, including a piece possibly perforated for the tuyère. Much of the collapsed structure was contained in the upper fills.
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Brady, K.. (2006) The prehistoric and Roman landscape at Beechbrook Wood, Westwell, Kent. London and Continental Railways

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Beechen Wood Parish: Withyham
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5150 3240
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Beechenwood Parish: Cowden
District: Sevenoaks River Basin: Medway
County: Kent OS Reference: TQ 4527 4231
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 228)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Beeches Farm Parish: Lingfield
District: Tandridge River Basin: Medway
County: Surrey OS Reference: TQ 4330 4130
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 223)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Benhall Forge Parish: Frant
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6080 3760
Site Type: Forge Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17 Earliest Date: 1574
Latest Date: 1661  
Dating evidence: Built by Roger Breecher prior to Sir William Waller's death in 1557 (ESRO DYK/70). Sir William's grandson and heir, Walter Waller, sold the farm of the forge to Richard Leeche in 1574 (ESRO DYK 69, 70) but Leeche appears to have already been working the site in the previous year (DYK/603). He refers to it in his will of 1596 (TNA PROB 11/88/89), leaving it to his brother, William. Richard Woody was then working the site for Leeche. Straker (pp.266-7) details the ownership through from Leeche's brother, William, and nephew Richard Fogge. A reference of 1605 to a forge formerly in the occupation of John Saunders and then of William Wybarne probably refers to Benhall (ESRO DYK/48), but the Wybarne connection may indicate Marriott's Croft (q.v.). John Baker and Edward Honeywood's purchase of the manor of Frant in 1634 gave them ownership of the works (DYK/72 & 224). Fogge's son, Whittingham, conveyed the forge to William Dyke by 1634 (DYK 72), which was let to Henry Dyke and William Hendley in 1640 (DYK 990. It was leased to Foley, Courthope and others in 1652 (Parsons 1882, 26) and again in 1655 (DYK 609). Hereford RO E/12/PF5/437 gives a stock account of 1657. John Browne's trustees, Thomas Foley, Herbert Springate and Edward Herbert, reassigned his lease to George Browne and Alexander Courthope in 1660 (Hereford RO HRO/F/Loose papers). Although ESRO DYK 961 mentions land belonging to the forge in 1678, there are no further references to operations there.
Site Description: Bay:
L 90m (present road) H 4m downstream. At NE end, bank L 35m at right angles separates River Teise from working areas.
Water System:
Pond dry.
Working area:
Obscured by later mill. Forge cinder near mill wheelpit.
Re-use:
Corn mill.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 4 Bay Length (m.): 90
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: anon.. (1985) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 5. pp. 2-8
(for this site see page(s) 43)

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 264-5)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 314)

Parsons, J. L.. (1882) The Sussex ironworks. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 32. pp. 19-32
(for this site see page(s) 26-9)

Teesdale, E. B.. (1986) The 1574 lists of ironworks in the Weald. A re-examination. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. Second series, 6. pp. 7-41
(for this site see page(s) 38-0)

Persons with known connections to this site: Baker, John - Co-owner in 1634
Breecher, Roger - Builder in c.1562
Browne, George - (Co-)lessee/ironmaster 1652-aft 1660
Browne, John - Lessee/ironmaster ?-1651
Courthope, Alexander - Trustee/co-lessee/ironmaster 1652-68?
Dyke, Henry - Co-Lessee/ironmaster in 1640
Dyke, Robert - Co-owner in 1640
Dyke, William - Owner 1633-59
Fogge, Richard - Owner aft 1596-1630
Fogge, Whittingham - Owner 1630-3
Foley, Thomas - Co-trustee/lessee 1652-60
Hendley, William - Co-Lessee/ironmaster in 1640
Herbert, Edward - Co-trustee/lessee 1652-60
Honeywood, Edward - ?Co-lessee in 1634
Leeche, Richard - Tenant then owner/ironmaster 1573-96
Leeche, William - Owner 1596-bef 1630
Ongley, Thomas - forgeman bef 1640-aft 1655
Saunders, John - Co-tenant/forgemaster bef 1605
Springate, Herbert - Co-trustee/lessee 1652-60
Waller, Walter - Owner ?-1574
Woddy, Robert - Tenant/ironmaster bef 1574-?
Wybarne, William - ?Tenant in 1605

Site Name: Bewbush (Ifield) Furnace Parish: Lower Beeding
District: Horsham River Basin: Mole
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 2390 3570
Site Type: Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17 Earliest Date: 1567
Latest Date: 1654  
Dating evidence: There is a risk of confusion with Ifield forge, less than 1km distant. Roger Gratwick, sen., left the lease of his furnace at Ifield to his son, also Roger, who had the forge as well in 1574; there are forge and furnace slags at both sites. The first references to a furnace at Ifield are in 1567, when sows were taken to Burningfold (TNA REQ2/115/2), followed by a case in 1569 (REQ2/244/45). Four years later Roger Gratwick held the furnace (REQ2/226/4), which corresponds with the list of 1574. Wood in the forest was let to Sir Thomas Shurley in 1578, who quickly reassigned the rights to Arthur Middleton, Stephen French and John Middleton, to last until 1597. Some wood was also assigned to Roger Gratwick. Wood was made over by John Middleton to Edward Cavill [Caryll?], who had grant of timber elsewhere in the forest. The confusion and the waste of wood gave rise to an enquiry in 1597 (TNA E178/2313). In 1602 sows were carried from Gosden furnace to Bewbush forge, occupied by John Middleton (REQ2/166/46). A 1632 survey of the king's lands in Bewbush and Shelly, co. Sussex, 'lately disparked', then in lease for 3 lives refers to "one furnace with bellowes & a water current to drive the same for the meltinge of iron ore" (Cheshire and Chester Archives and Local Studies Service, DAR/C/84/3). Bewbush furnace, according to a Parliamentary Survey of 1649, went out of use about 1642 (TNA LR2/299, F.20) but it appears in the list of furnaces working in 1653. It was leased by Thomas Middleton to Bray Chowne in 1654, former occupants being named as Walter Burrell and Jeremiah Johnson (Staffordshire Archives D(W)1788/P38.B6). By 1664 it was ruined.
The very high fuel consumption of Bewbush furnace and Ifield forge can be illustrated by transactions over the seven-year period from 1589-1596 when 56,000 cords of wood, worth £4,200, were cut down in Shelley and Bewbush parks.

Staffordshire Record Office, DW/1788/P41/B20
Abstract of Title
The furnace in Ifield was built by John Mayne esquire, who leased it to Edward Fenner gentleman, for twenty one years. He passed it to his brother, Thomas Fenner, who about 1567-8 sold the residue of the lease for £200 to Thomas Ilman of Ifield. Ilman on 16 February 1569 mortgaged the mill to Roger Gratwick, the elder, for £74.13.4, which was to be repaid on the feast of St. John the Baptist in the church porch at Horsham. The story, however, was more complicated than that, for Gratwick had agreed to be bound for Ilman to Mr. Alderman Bacon and Mr. Webbe of London for payment of five tons of iron, and he was unwilling to accept repayment of the mortgage until that bond was also discharged. The younger Roger had inherited an unsolved problem on his father’s death. Ilman was heavily in debt and was conveying his goods to friends with evident intent to defraud. Gratwick’s chance of seeing his bond discharged was therefore poor. Meanwhile, the title to possession of the furnace was encumbered and it was in the physical possession of Ninian Challenor and Richard Ilman.
Site Description: Bay:
L 275m H 1.5m/2.5m forms bridle road with surface of sandstone and forge bottoms (ex Ifield Forge?). Downstream side revetted with brick and stone.
Water system:
Pond dry (drained 1939-45). Spillway probably present stream. Dry channel 11m N of stream may be tail-race.
Working area:
Glassy slag in bank S of stream.
Re-use:
Corn mill.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 2.5 Bay Length (m.): 275
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 458)

Gibson-Hill, J. and Worssam, B. C.. (1976) Analyses of Wealden iron ores and their archaeological significance. Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology. 13. pp. 247-263
(for this site see page(s) 261-2)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 315)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 4)

Comber, J.. (1919) The Family of Gratwicke, of Jarvis, Shermanbury and Tortington. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 60. pp. 34-66
(for this site see page(s) 42)

Persons with known connections to this site: Burrell, Walter - Co-lessee/ironmaster bef 1654
Challenor, Ninian - Co-operator
Chowne, Bray - Lessee 1654-?
Fenner, Edward - Lessee/ironmaster
Fenner, Thomas - Lessee/ironmaster
Gratwick, Roger - Lessee/ironmaster bef 1567?-1570
Gratwick, Roger - Lessee/ironmaster 1570-aft 1574
Ilman, Richard - Co-operator
Ilman, Thomas - ?Co-tenant/ironmaster in 1563
Johnson, Jeremiah - Co-lessee/ironmaster bef 1654
Middleton, Thomas - Owner in 1654
Panny, William - iron worker in 1563
Swayne, John - Builder/owner bef 1563
a Paryse, John - iron worker in 1563

Site Name: Bewbush 1 Parish: Crawley
District: Crawley River Basin: Mole
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 2470 3570
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: Tap slag was found in a wood adjacent to the south-eastern end of Ifield Mill pond. Subsequently, the construction of a trunk sewer system exposed what appeared to be a section of a slag dump measuring approximately 26m by 18m. The exposed portion stood 6cm high. 24.5m east of the dump a ditch, V-shaped in section, was revealed. This was filled with slag, and two post pits found nearby had a slag packing.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology: Weald Clay
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery: J. Gibson-Hill and B. C. Worssam
References: Gibson-Hill, J. and Worssam, B. C.. (1976) Analyses of Wealden iron ores and their archaeological significance. Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology. 13. pp. 247-263
(for this site see page(s) 262)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Bewbush 2 Parish: Crawley
District: Crawley River Basin: Mole
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 2450 3550
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: Lies to the south of Bewbush 1 in what what was, in 1975, an open field. Bloomery slag covered a circular area of about 20m diameter.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery: B. C. Worssam
References: Gibson-Hill, J. and Worssam, B. C.. (1976) Analyses of Wealden iron ores and their archaeological significance. Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology. 13. pp. 247-263
(for this site see page(s) 262)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Biddenden Hammer Mill Parish: Biddenden
District: Tunbridge Wells River Basin: Medway
County: Kent OS Reference: TQ 8220 3830
Site Type: Forge, Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17 Earliest Date: 1570
Latest Date: 1667  
Dating evidence: Sir Richard Baker built this forge in 1570, and he was in dispute with the parishioners of Biddenden over damage to the new bridge over the overflow channel in 1583 (Kent History and Library Centre P26/28/2). Baker was the owner in the lists of 1574 and 1588 (Staffs. RO D593/S/4/28/13, 16), but the furnace mentioned in Sir Richard Baker's will of 1591 is almost certainly Frith in Hawkhurst (TNA PROB11/84/86) as there is a clear statement in 1588 that there was no furnace at Biddenden at that time. A bill to establish a lease of property which included the forge, between Sir Richard Baker's widow and Sir Stephen Thornhill and his wife, may not have been enacted (TNA C2/Eliz/B18/43). However, a furnace had been built by 1606 as, in the settlement following Sir Henry Baker's marriage, there is a clear reference to both a furnace and forge in the property called Upper Betnam (KHLC U24/T278), in the occupation of Peter Courthop and Thomas Washer. The inquisition held on the death of Sir Henry in 1624 also makes reference to a furnace as well as a forge, by then in the hands of Thomas Courthop (KHLC U24/T425). A furnace in Biddenden or Sissinghurst was stocked in 1653 and 1664, and a forge at Horsfeild near Sissinghurst, which is presumably the Hammer Mill site, also worked in 1653 and 1667, although this may be evidence of confusion with the forge at Hothfield (q.v.). Working at this date, however, is confirmed by parish overseers' assessments which record the tenants as Thomas Plummer, Robert Drayner and Alex Homesbe (KHLC P26/12/1). However, the valuation for the stock-in-trade declines until none is recorded in 1666. A nil return in 1674, when the tenants were replaced by the descendants of Sir John Baker presumably indicates abandonment.
Site Description: Bay:
L 220m; extension to S to Hammer Wood probably dates from construction of the corn mill in the late 18th century H (E end) 1.75m/2.5m.
Water system:
Pond dry. Straight channel used by former cornmill may have been the original spillway for the ironworks.
Working area:
Furnace site in angle of bay at E end. Depression here represents wheelpit, whence channel runs to stream. Scattered bricks, tiles, round forge bottoms, cinder, glassy furnace slag. Rectangular iron slab 1.25m x 75cm. Forge site is probably on the east side of the Hammer stream where a level area with a bank on the east side is adjacent to forge slag in the stream.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference: TQ 83 NW 78
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 2.5 Bay Length (m.): 220
Excavation?: Yes CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details: Brief excavation c.1970 by the Wealden Archaeological Research Group (Arch Cant 83, 1971, 192), led by Mr A. B. Cardwell, revealed a wheel pit and brick and tile debris at the eastern end of the bay. Slag found, including a bear, suggested a blast furnace. A channel running from the excavated area across to the Hammer Stream had evidence of timber shoring.

A visit in 2012, when water levels were low, revealed quantities of forge slag in the Hammer Stream, east of the mill house, and blast furnace slag further to the east close to the rising ground.
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology: Tunbridge Wells Sand
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 282-3)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 315-6)

anon.. (1971) Investigations and Excavations during the year. Archaeologia Cantiana. 85. pp. 175-195
(for this site see page(s) 192)

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2004) Ironworks in Late-16th Century Kent. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. Second series, 24. pp. 6-16

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 4, 6)

Persons with known connections to this site: Baker, Henry - Owner 1596-1623
Baker, John - Owner 1653-61
Baker, John - Owner 1594-6
Baker, John - Owner 1623-53
Baker, Richard - Owner/ironmaster 1570-94
Barden, Charles - Hammerman in 1572
Barr, John - forgeman c.1620-60
Bluet, Stephen - hammerman in 1620
Bluett, Elias - hammerman bef 1618-1621
Courthop, Thomas - Lessee/ironmaster bef 1624-?
Courthope, Peter - Co-lessee/ironmaster bef 1606-bef 1624
Drayner, Robert - Co-lessee bef 1658-1673
Haitowe, Michael - forgeman ?-1611
Homesbe, Alex - Co-Lessee bef 1658-1673
Lenward, Lawrence - founder in 1655
Newton, Elizabeth - ?Owner 1661-?
Plummer, Thomas - Co-lessee bef 1658-bef 1673
Pullen, Anthony - bef 1624-1637
Standen, James - Hammerman in 1663
Standen, Thomas - fineryman in 1637
Washer, Thomas - Co-Lessee bef 1606-bef 1624
Willie, Richerd - Clerk in 1588

Site Name: Bingles Farm Parish: Withyham
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5070 3400
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: 01 Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence: A rim and base from two jars of similar form, both from probably AD 50-100. Th diameter of the base sherd is not certain. Three other East Sussex ware sherds were found.
Site Description: The site is on the lower boundary of a small grass field that extends from the vicinity of Bingles House down to a small stream. Above the site, on the same field, are at least two terraces that suggest house platforms.
At the site itself there is an apparent ford with large stones in the stream. Among these there is slag and cinder and a large furnace bottom. This latter has obviously originated from one of the large-type bloomery furnaces, as at Pippingford (q.v.) and Cowpark (q.v.).
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: Yes CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details: It was decided to dig two trenches from the bank of the stream out into the field.

Trench 1 This was 4m by 1m, near the field corner. Immediately under the turf modern and post-medieval artifacts were found. They included clay pipes, blast furnace slag, clay roofing tiles and bricks, and a small quantity of bloomery slag. Below this came some sherds of medieval pottery. At a depth of 20cm. this material thinned out and a compacted black layer was reached. This contained almost nothing but bloomery slag, large stones, some showing burning, and pieces of clay furnace lining. One of these latter contained a ‘sausage’ of clay from the ring method of furnace construction. The bottom of the layer of furnace waste was
not reached at 30cm. depth, when work had to be abandoned owing to bad weather. However at this depth came several sherds of Romano-British pottery, including one rim sherd.

Trench 2 This trench was 3m by 1m and conditions here were much the same as in Trench 1. Medieval and post-medieval artefacts were found down to a depth of 20 cm, where the hard black layer was reached. Below this the N half of the trench was sharply differentiated from the S half. At the N end occurred a mixture of yellow and black (charcoal) which went down to undisturbed yellow subsoil at 40cm. Several possible stake holes penetrated this. The S half, separated from the N by a collection of stones across the trench, was a continuous layer of black down to the undisturbed natural. Both these halves contained much bloomery waste and in both were found a number of sherds of Romano-British pottery.
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 1
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Tebbutt, C. F.. (1979) Reports on Fieldwork. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st ser. 15. pp. 2-10
(for this site see page(s) 4-5)

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1999) Romano-British iron production in the Sussex and Kent Weald: a review of current data. Historical Metallurgy. 33, no. 2. pp. 68-72
(for this site see page(s) 71)

Tebbutt, C. F.. (1981) Wealden Bloomery Smelting Furnaces. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 119. pp. 57-64
(for this site see page(s) 61)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 305)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Bingletts Wood Parish: Heathfield and Waldron
District: Wealden River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6192 2120
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Cattell, C. S.. (1970) Preliminary research findings relating to the bloomery period of the iron industry of the upper basin of the eastern Rother (East Sussex). Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group. 4. 1. pp. 18-20
(for this site see page(s) 18-20)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Birchden Forge Parish: Rotherfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5330 3530
Site Type: Forge, Boring Mill Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17, 18 Earliest Date: 1524
Latest Date: 1719  
Dating evidence: In his will, proved in 1524, Roger Machyn lists the iron mill of Birchden as his (TNA PROB 11/21/19). John Baker leased the forge by 1553 (ESRO WA3, fos. 186-7). In 1574 it belonged to Sir Walter Waller, but was sold to Michael Weston in 1579 (TNA C142/243/39). In 1595 the Earl of Dorset bought the forge, his tenant in 1597 being Thomas Richardson (Straker 1933:40). It was sold to John Baker in 1617. Richard Maynard was tenant in 1618 (ESRO DYK 1011). In 1619 Richard Maynard left to his son in law, John Hatch, his half share with John Baker in Hamsell furnace and Birchden forge (PROB 11/133163).; the forge was operating in 1653 and 1667. John Browne built a boring mill near the forge in 1677 (ESRO DYK 614). Although absent from the 1717 list, the papers associated with the sale following Robert Baker's bankruptcy record two iron mills at Birchden (the forge and Hamsell furnace) in 1709 and 1719 (BL Add. MSS 5681). The forge remained in the Baker family until 1737 (ibid.).
Site Description: Bay:
Road to Forge Form L 155m H 75cm/2m. Overgrown stone tunnel at N end.
Water system:
Pond dry (weir is modern).
Working area:
Probably now occupied by house of later date; garden has black soil. Behind bay at N end is iron forge plate, also round forge bottoms and slag.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 2 Bay Length (m.): 155
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:
(for this site see page(s) 383)

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 260-1)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 316, 383)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 6)

Burchall, M. J.. (1983) Richard Maynard - Yeoman and Ironmaster. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. Second series, 3. pp. 18-24

Persons with known connections to this site: Baker, Elizabeth - Trustee/owner 1708-38
Baker, John - Owner/ironmaster 1644-88
Baker, John - Owner 1638-44
Baker, John - Owner/ironmaster 1617-38
Baker, John - Lessee/ironmaster ?-1555
Baker, Robert - Owner 1688-1708
Bicknell, John - Trustee/owner 1737-8
Bicknell, Robert - Trustee/owner in 1737
Browne, John - Lessee/ironmaster in 1677
Caserall, Jacobe - iron worker in 1524
Hatch, John - Co-owner 1619-?
Machyn, Roger - Lessee/ironmaster ?-1524
Maynard, Richard - Co-owner bef 1618-19
Milkylbyll, William - iron worker in 1524
Pynyon, Everode - iron worker in 1524
Richardson, Thomas - Lessee/ironmaster in 1597
Robyn, Colles - iron worker in 1524
Sackville, Richard - Owner 1509-24
Sackville, Robert - Owner 1608-9
Sackville, Thomas - Owner 1595-1608
Tompion, unknown - hammerman in 1587
Waller, Walter - Owner bef 1574-9
Weston, Michael - Owner 1577-8

Site Name: Birchen Knoll Cottage Parish: Fairlight
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 8620 1312
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: A field adjacent to the site is known as Cinderbank Field, which defies ploughing owing to the compacted slag in the soil.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details: Excavation of ground preparatory to the erection of a garage exposed reddened clay and bloomery cinder, together with the remains of a hollow clay structure on top of which was a square-shaped 'vent tube' made of hard compacted clay. A double tuyere was recovered and is now in Hastings Museum. some of the slag was reported to be black and glassy.
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology: Ashdown Beds
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery: Brian and Sheila Baker; Barry Funnell (1987)
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 339)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Birchenbridge Forge Parish: Horsham
District: Horsham River Basin: Arun
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 1930 2920
Site Type: Forge Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17 Earliest Date: 1598
Latest Date: 1627  
Dating evidence: First noted in a survey of the woods of Sir John Caryll in 1598, who had leased the Manors of Chesworth and Sedgwick from the Crown in 1572 (BL Add. Charters 18,883). The forge is not in the lists of 1574. A Court of Requests case of 1601 has John Middleton as tenant (PRO REQ 2/186/35). The site is mentioned in a Quarter Session deposition in 1614 (ESRO QR/EW 10,m 72). This is presumably the iron mill referred to in a survey of Crown manors in 1627 (City of London RO RCE papers no. 123 Q4)). It does not appear in a similar survey the following year, and there are no further references.
Site Description: Bay L 80m H 8m/3m Forms modern A281 road.
Water system Enlarged pond in water. Substantial later brick spillway. Possible overflow leat on N side of site. Probable pen pond, Roasthole Pond, upstream on tributary. Pipe through bay relates to subsequent corn mill.
Working area Abandoned wheelrace is separated from mainstream by bank with much forge slag. Large
masses of slag and timbers in stream. Some large blocks from corn mill, below bay.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 8 Bay Length (m.): 80
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 383)

Evans, T. E. and Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1984) Birchenbridge Forge: a new site identified. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 4. pp. 7-10

Persons with known connections to this site: Caryll, John - Lessee 1613-27?
Caryll, John - Lessee bef 1598-1613
Middleton, John - Tenant/ironmaster in 1601
The Crown - Owner bef 1598-

Site Name: Birchenwood Parish: Cowden
District: Sevenoaks River Basin: Medway
County: Kent OS Reference: TQ 4540 4140
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 228)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Bivelham (Bibleham) Forge Parish: Mayfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6410 2660
Site Type: Forge Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17, 18 Earliest Date: 1550
Latest Date: 1787  
Dating evidence: Possibly a Pelham forge in 1550 or before (Awty 1984: 24), Bivelham is noted as in the possession of William Pelham in 1561-2 (BL Add. Ch. 31,234) and in 1567 the forge was included in a settlement by John Pelham (BL Add. Ch. 29,744). The tenant in 1574 was Thomas Ellis. It was retained by Pelhams until the eighteenth century, working up pig iron from Waldron furnace (BL Add. Ch. 29,745, Add. MSS 5679-1585; Add. MSS 33,144-6 sevententh century accounts). It was listed in 1653 and 1667. 50 tons of iron were made in 1717, 40 tons in 1736. It was marked on Budgen's map of 1724 when it was in the hands of Thomas Hussey. Wm. Harrison and John Legas used the forge 1741-5 (Guildhall MSS 3736), with Legas continuing as lessee until 1752. Following the bankruptcy of Richard Tapsell in 1765, the forge was let to David Collins (ESRO GLY 2825-47). Pelham ownership came to an end in 1768 when it was sold to Richard Trevor, Bishop of Durham. 30 tons were still produced yearly in 1787 (Sc. Mus. Weale MSS).
Site Description: Bay:
L 98m H 1m/2m Breached at S end; fades out near River Rother. Probability that left bank of Rother was also raised originally to form pond on N side.
Water System:
Pond dry. Long leat leaving Rother 500m upstream served pond; now flows through N end of bay to join ditch on S side of Newbridge Wood, flowing into Rother 600m downstream. Rother below bay may have been used for navigation.
Working area:
Deep hollow and platform behind bay just S of leat stream, another hollow N of it. Much forge cinder and bottom near bay at this end and from nearby ditch SW side of Newbridge Wood where Tudor pewter spoon (Barbican House Museum, Lewes) found.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 2 Bay Length (m.): 98
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:
(for this site see page(s) 383)

Hulme, E. W.. (1929) Statistical History of the Iron Trade of England and Wales, 1717-1750. Transactions of the Newcomen Society. 9. pp. 12-35
(for this site see page(s) 22, 25)

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 295)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 315, 383)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 6)

Persons with known connections to this site: Barden, John - iron worker in 1550
Bilet, Isambert - iron worker in 1544?
Clinton, Henry - Part-owner in 1755
Collins, David - Lessee/ironmaster 1766-87?
Ellis, Thomas - Lessee/ironmaster in 1574
Francis, Thomas - Trustee-owner in 1755
Hampden-Trevor, Thomas - Owner 1783-87
Harrison, William - Partner 1741-5
Heaton, Thomas - Trustee-owner in 1755
Hedoll, Michael - forgeman in 1550
Hedowell, Paule - iron worker 1550-1
Hussey, Thomas - Lessee/ironmaster 1717-35
Legas, John - Lessee/ironmaster 1735-52
Pelham, Grace - Part-owner 1755-?
Pelham, Henry - Owner 1712-54
Pelham, John - Owner/ironmaster 1654-1703
Pelham, John - Owner 1560-80
Pelham, Katherine - Part-owner in 1755
Pelham, Thomas - Owner/ironmaster 1624-54
Pelham, Thomas - Owner/ironmaster 1580-1624
Pelham, Thomas - Owner/ironmaster 1703-12
Pelham, William - Tenant?/ironmaster 1561-2
Raunser, Lewes - iron worker in 1544?
Rayner, John - (De facto-)part-owner 1755-?
Tapsell, Richard - clerk, later lessee/ironmaster 1752-65
Trevor, Richard - Owner 1768-71
Trevor, Robert - Owner 1771-83
Tyler, Simond - iron worker in 1544?
Uddys, Nicholas - iron worker in 1544?
Vynton, John - iron worker in 1544?
Watson, Lewis - Part-owner 1755-?

Site Name: Black Field, Beeches Farm Parish: Hartfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4590 3820
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 230)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Blackbrook / Perrymans Parish: Crowborough
District: Wealden River Basin: Ouse
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5120 2880
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: anon.. (1972) Investigations by the Buxted team. Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 3. pp. 10-12
(for this site see page(s) 11)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Blackfold Furnace Parish: Cuckfield Rural
District: Mid-Sussex River Basin: Ouse
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 2740 2940
Site Type: Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16 Earliest Date: 1574
Latest Date: 1574  
Dating evidence: Property of Ninian Challoner in 1574 and worked in association with Holmsted (Gaston's Bridge) Forge (TNA SP12/95/20 f.50r).
Site Description: Bay: L 55m H pond in water/3m (probably restored). At E end widens to form furnace-charging platform.
Water system: At W end stone stepped spillway in good condition (probably restored). Further spillway at E end of bay. Pen ponds upstream said to be modern.
Working area: At E end below charging platform low mound represents furnace base, with wheelpit hollow to S. Much glassy slag and charcoal waste nearby.

The spillway forms an overflow at the south-west corner of the pond and runs along the base of the bay, between it and a substantial bank. At a point about halfway along the present bay the stream turns south through quantities of slag. It was noticed that there was no evidence of slag on the present bay, nor on the downstream side until beyond the bank referred to above. It was suggested that this bank was the original bay of the furnace and that, rather than rebuild the old bay when the pond was landscaped, a new one was constructed upstream.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 3 Bay Length (m.): 55
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 404-5)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 316)

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1985) Blackfold Furnace, Handcross. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, vol 5. pp. 4

Persons with known connections to this site: Challenor, Ninian - Owner/ironmaster bef 1574-1609?

Site Name: Blackland Wood 1 Parish: Beckley
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 8537 2170
Site Type: Bloomforge (unsure) Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: Situated on a bank some 8 m north of stream. Layer of black detritus containing many flakes of possible hammer scale, typically 1/2 cm. across and 2mm. thick with a laminar structure. Area of site perhaps 20 sq. metres. This site is located about 50 metres from the bloomery site entered as "Timber Wood 2"
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation: Forestry Commission-style conifer plantation with sedge, bramble and honeysuckle forming an understorey.
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery: J Prus
References:

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Blackland Wood 2 Parish:
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: OS Reference: TQ 8520 2160
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: Small patch of surface slag and larger area with metal-detector response on south bank of stream. Old hollow-way immediately north/east. Dense conifer cover leaves map reference with 6-figure accuracy only.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation: Forestry Commission-style plantation with no understorey.
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : 5 Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 0
Persons Involved in Discovery: J Prus
References:

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Blackland Wood 3 Parish: Beckley
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 8527 2171
Site Type: Ore burning site (unsure) Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: This site is located on the north bank of the stream (marked downstream as Eggshole Brook on the OS map) and stretches for about 130 metres from TQ 8527 2171 to TQ 8515 2168 in a band, typically 3 to 5 metres wide (but extending to about 20 metres at one point), along the top of the bank. This might represent a number of ore roasting sites. If this interpretaion is correct the extent of the site suggests supply to a blast furnace rather than to neighbouring bloomeries. The site was found by metal detection. Four test pits showed that the magnetic reponse was due to iron working debris: ore fines, roasted ore, burnt clay and stones and a dense black mineral, probably ferrunginous sand. The debris is in a matrix of red soil that is at least 60 cm. deep in places. The surrounding soil is typically grey or grey-yellow. Unlike the Timber Wood 2 site (140 metres downstream) there is no sign of slag on the surface or of blackened soil.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology: On the Wadhurst clay, at the edge of the Tunbridge Wells sand.
Description of site vegetation: Chestnut and hornbeam coppice with some very large stools and little undergrowth. The opposite side of the stream is covered with Forestry Commission-style plantation.
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery: J Prus
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2008) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 28. pp. 3-8
(for this site see page(s) 6)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Blacklands Parish: Hastings
District: Hastings River Basin: Asten
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 8177 1031
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: In 1861 the Mayor of Hastings, Thomas Ross, exhibited at a Sussex Arch Soc meeting at Hastings "slag from the foundry on Blacklands Farm, Hastings, supposed to be Roman" (Sussex Arch. Colls., 14 (1862), p. xiii.)

Long built over, the most likely site is probably on the SW side of Baldslow Road, towards its junction with Queen's Road. The 1st edition OS 25 in. map (1873) has 'Blacklands' place names in that vicinity, and the location matches the description of the site given by Cole; '...and on either side of this our Priory Valley the ancient ironworks can yet be pointed out'. (T.H.Cole, 'Antiquities of Hastings', Archaeological Journal 1867)
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference: MES845
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 350)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Blackman's Farm Parish: Warbleton
District: Wealden River Basin: Cuckmere
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6140 1720
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence: 20cm from the surface a plain piece of Samian ware was found with its glazing still intact and bearing a thin ridged line.
Site Description: An area of tap-slag lies on a steep slope to the west of the stream and measures approximately 15 by 20 metres. At the same level there was part of a clay tuyere. There is a considerable thickness of slag and charcoal mixed with black soil.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: Yes CLBR: No
Samian pottery: Yes Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details: A trench was dug measuring 3 by 2 metres.
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : 300 Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 1
Persons Involved in Discovery: G. Farebrother / Hailsham School Practical History Group
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1999) Romano-British iron production in the Sussex and Kent Weald: a review of current data. Historical Metallurgy. 33, no. 2. pp. 68-72
(for this site see page(s) 71)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 304)

Farebrother, G.. (1978) Bloomery at Rushlake Green. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 14. pp. 5

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Blackwater Green Forge Parish: Crawley
District: Crawley River Basin: Mole
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 2920 3630
Site Type: Forge Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17 Earliest Date: 1574
Latest Date: 1617  
Dating evidence: No firm references, although Blackwater is likely to have been one of the two hammers in Moore (Worth) Forest in 1574 (Cattell 1979:166); difficulties in determining the division and descent of ownership of the forest. Probably the forge listed in the inventory of ironworks belonging to the Lord Admiral, Sir Thomas Seymour, in the Forest of Worth in 1549 (Ellis 1861,128-31) and, in 1574, in the ownership of Lord Abergavenny, let to John Caulfield alias Eversfield of East Grinstead. With Worth Furnace, it is probably the forge leased by Edward More in 1617, rather than Tinsley as has been suggested elswhere.
Site Description: Bay:
L 140m H 2.75m/indeterminate, much altered. Forms bridle road. Breached by stream (bridged) 46m from N end.
Water system:
Pond dry. Small existing pond at S end of bay with outlet to main stream may indicate position of spillway.
Working area:
Slag-layer in N bank of stream. Forge bottoms in road surface on bay. Glassy slag in stream.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 2.75 Bay Length (m.): 140
Excavation?: Yes CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details: Excavation by the UCL Field Unit in 1988 revealed remains of two timber-lined, double wheelpits, and an anvil base.
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Cattell, C. (1979) The 1574 lists of Wealden ironworks. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 117. pp. 161-72
(for this site see page(s) 166)

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 466)

Place, C. and Bedwin, O. (1992) The sixteenth-century forge at Blackwater Green, Worth, West Sussex: Excavations 1988. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 130

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 316-7)

Place, C.. (1989) Blackwater Green, Crawley. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 9. pp. 10-11

Ellis, H. (1861) Inventories of Goods etc. in Cheseworth, Sedgwick, Sheffield and Worth. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 13. pp. 118-131
(for this site see page(s) 128-31)

Persons with known connections to this site: Eversfield, John - Lessee/ironmaster bef 1574-82?
Eversfield, Thomas - Part-owner 1582-1613
Harward, Walter - Co-lessee 1617-?
Howard, Thomas - Owner c.1544-7, 1553-4
Middleton, John - Co-tenant/ironmaster bef 1617-?
More, Edward - Part-owner 1582-23
Needler, Henry - (Co-)tenant/ironmaster bef 1617-?
Nevill, Henry - Owner in 1574
Segar, Edward - Co-lessee 1617-?
Seymour, Thomas - Lessee 1547-9
Sherief, John - ironmaster/clerk 1546-9

Site Name: Bletchingley Gill Parish: Rotherfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5758 2993
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date: 0
Latest Date: 0  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2006) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 26. pp. 2-5

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Bletchingley Wood Parish: Rotherfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5768 3053
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date: 0
Latest Date: 0  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2006) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 26. pp. 2-5

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Blowers Hill, Mount Noddy Parish: Cowden
District: Sevenoaks River Basin: Medway
County: Kent OS Reference: TQ 4758 4186
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 231)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Bodiam 1 Parish: Bodiam
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7814 2484
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: 02 Earliest Date: 0
Latest Date: 0  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: A discrete scatter of bloomery slag approximately 14 x 21 m, located in the angle between the B2165 and the railway to the NE of the station (TQ 78142484), found in close association with ceramics of the second century and tile fragments
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : 294 Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 1
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Kaminski, J. (1995) The environmental implications of Romano-British iron production in the Weald. Unpublished PhD. thesis. University of Reading
(for this site see page(s) 204)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Bodiam 2 Parish: Ewhurst
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7810 2490
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: 02 Earliest Date: 0
Latest Date: 0  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: A small scatter of tap slag, approximately 7 x 7 m, to the east of Bodiam Station, associated with a ceramic assemblage of the second century, and a fragment of tuyere. A 'boss' from a tegula mammata was found adjacent to the site.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : 49 Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 1
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Kaminski, J. (1995) The environmental implications of Romano-British iron production in the Weald. Unpublished PhD. thesis. University of Reading
(for this site see page(s) 204)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Borders Farm Parish: Burwash
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6922 2525
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date: 0
Latest Date: 0  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: A concentration of bloomery slag, with pieces of tap slag, has been found at the head of a small gill, part of Borders Farm, Etchingham.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery: Mr M. Tebbett
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2002) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 22. pp. 2-5
(for this site see page(s) 2)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Boring Wheel Mill Parish: Maresfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Ouse
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4560 2650
Site Type: Boring Mill (unsure) Period: Modern
Century: 17 Earliest Date: 1658
Latest Date: 1658  
Dating evidence: Parliamentary Survey of Ashdown Forest, 1658 (Danel-Tyssen 1872:191 and 206) refers to 'sluices and water courses to west end of bay of the boringe wheele pond', inferring working area here, i.e. not on site of later corn mill. Only evidence for connection with iron industry is in name (going back to seventeenth century) and local tradition.
Site Description: Bay:
L 110m H pond in water/3m.
Water system:
Spillway at NE end, used by later corn mill, was probably orginal. Corn mill took water by leat from SE corner of pond, bypassing bay.
Working area:
No trace now remains.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 3 Bay Length (m.): 110
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 398)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 317)

Daniel-Tyssen, J. R.. (1872) The Parliamentary Surveys of the County of Sussex, 1649-53. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 24. pp. 189-287
(for this site see page(s) 191, 206)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Bosmere Farm Parish: Hadlow Down
District: Wealden River Basin: Ouse
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5450 2220
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: Here bloomery slag could be seen coming from the S side of the stream bank, behind which was a slight hollow which extended beyond the streamside shaw into the arable field beyond.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: Yes CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details: A trench 1m x 3m was dug at right angles to the stream where the surface slag seemed thickest. Undisturbed subsoil was reached at about 32cm. Only at the stream end of the trench was an appreciable amount of slag found but amongst this was one body sherd of Romano-British pottery, almost certainly of ‘South Eastern B’ type. The site is on Ashdown Sand.
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 1
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1999) Romano-British iron production in the Sussex and Kent Weald: a review of current data. Historical Metallurgy. 33, no. 2. pp. 68-72
(for this site see page(s) 71)

Tebbutt, C. F.. (1978) Reports on Fieldwork. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 13. pp. 6-15
(for this site see page(s) 10)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 300)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Botley Wood Parish: East Grinstead
District: Mid-Sussex River Basin: Medway
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4010 3540
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Bough Beech 2 (Chiddingstone) Furnace Parish: Hever
District: Sevenoaks River Basin: Medway
County: Kent OS Reference: TQ 4815 4760
Site Type: Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16 Earliest Date: 1588
Latest Date: 1590  
Dating evidence: The only references are for the years 1588-90. Thomas Willoughbie owned a furnace and forge in Chiddingstone parish. The furnace was let to Thomas Browne who, with his founder, Ephraim Arnold, cast ordnance (Staffs. RO D593/S/4/22/3, 16, 17). Schubert 1948: 245-6, cited Sevenoaks Public Library H414 in support of Willoughbie's sale of land and furnaces to Browne in 1589.
Site Description: Bay:
L 120m H 4m pond dry
Water system:
Present stream through centre of bay, possible channel at NW end
Working area:
Slag on both sides of stream and in field to NW
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: Yes
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 4 Bay Length (m.): 120
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 218)

Schubert, H. R.. (1948) The northern extension of the Wealden iron industry. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. 161. pp. 245-246

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 317)

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2004) Ironworks in Late-16th Century Kent. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. Second series, 24. pp. 6-16
(for this site see page(s) 11, 14)

Persons with known connections to this site: Arnole, Ephraim - gun founder in 1588
Browne, Thomas - Lessee to 1588, owner/ironmaster 1589-?
Willoughbie, Thomas - Owner bef 1588-89

Site Name: Bough Beech Furnace or Forge 1 Parish: Hever
District: Sevenoaks River Basin: Medway
County: Kent OS Reference: TQ 4770 4730
Site Type: Forge, Furnace (unsure) Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence: Small quantities of forge debris in the stream reported by Tebbutt in 1980 (WIRG Site notes, unpub.) offer the possibility that this site may be the forge referred to the 1589 list of Kent ironworks.
Site Description: Bay:
L 30m. Breached by stream near centre.
Water system:
Pond dry. Spillway probably at W end.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.): 30
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 317)

anon.. (1974) Inventory of Iron Sites visited by WIRG. Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 7. pp. 10-27
(for this site see page(s) 20)

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2004) Ironworks in Late-16th Century Kent. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. Second series, 24. pp. 6-16
(for this site see page(s) 11)

Persons with known connections to this site: Willoughbie, Thomas - Owner in 1588

Site Name: Bower Forge Parish: Forest Row
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4410 3840
Site Type: Forge Period: Modern
Century: 17 Earliest Date: 1558
Latest Date: 1653  
Dating evidence: In his will of 1558, Hugh Bottinge of the The Bower, left his son, Henry, 'two tonnes of yron' (TNA PROB 11/48). The forge was working in 1653 but ruined by 1664.
Site Description: Bay (Farm Road):
L 200m
Water system:
Pond dry. Leat on N side of main stream from sluice 400m upstream.
Working area:
Cinder only found under farm road bridge; forge bottom at TQ 4420 3860.
No re-use:
But site much altered and confused by later ornamental ponds downstream.
Site confirmed by house and field names: Hammerwood, Little Forge Meadow and Forge Meadow and Forge Meadow N and S of stream downstream of bay.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.): 200
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 229)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 317)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 5)

Persons with known connections to this site: Botting, Edward - Lessee/?ironmaster 1645-56
Botting, Henry - Owner/ironmaster? 1558-?
Botting, Hugh - Owner/ironmaster in ?-1558
Botting, John - Owner 1622-28
Bottinge, John - Owner/ironmaster? ?-1622
Payne, Edward - Owner 1643-56
Payne, Edward - Owner 1628-43

Site Name: Boxhurst Steel Forge Parish: Sandhurst
District: Tunbridge Wells River Basin:
County: Kent Site Type: Steel Forge
Period: Modern Century: 16
Earliest Date: 1565 Latest Date: 1572
Dating evidence: Building works at Boxhurst were under way in 1566 and production of steel was appearing in accounts later the same year (KHLC U1475 B4/1), Gervase Krisker being paid for 34 and a half barrels of steel. Later accounts of 'The Steele Workes in the Countie of Kent' for 1567-8 may be presumed to refer to them also (KHLC U1475 B4/2).
Site Description: Boxhurst lies half a mile SE of Sandhurst village, but the site of the steel mill has not been identified.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Jenkins, R.. (1924) Notes on the early history of steelmaking in England. Transactions of the Newcomen Society. 3. pp. 16-40

Schubert, H. R.. (1950) The economic aspect of Sir Henry Sidney's steelworks at Robertsbridge in Sussex and Boxhurst in Kent. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. 164. pp. 278-80

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) Sidney Ironworks Accounts 1541-1573. Royal Historical Society (Camden Fourth Series Vol. 15). London

Persons with known connections to this site: Sidney, Henry - ?Owner 1565-c.1572

Site Name: Bramble Farm Parish: Wye with Hinxhill
District: Ashford River Basin: Stour
County: Kent OS Reference: TR 0493 4746
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: Earliest Date: 0
Latest Date: 0  
Dating evidence: The ceramic assemblage and coin evidence, associated with the iron production, suggested the continuation of occupation on this site from the late first to early third century.
Site Description: The iron production and industrial site at Bramble Farm (TR 0493 4746) is located approximately 375m NNW of Wye Station. Evidence for industrial activity was first recorded by the Ashford Archaeological Society in advance of development (Bradshaw 1971: 288). The industrial area and iron production site centred at TR 04934746 was one of two recovered foci of settlement. Industrial activity included evidence for "iron working and primitive smelting hearths in conjunction with some other industry that required a stone floor for drainage" (Bradshaw, Arch Cant, 85, 1970: 178). The length of occupation attested by the ceramic evidence suggests a site of possibly semi-industrial proportions. However, within the confines of the rescue excavations, no substantial slag deposits were recovered to confirm this. The close proximity of route 130 could have provided a substantial outlet for the removal of slag for metalling purposes.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 1
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Kaminski, J. (1995) The environmental implications of Romano-British iron production in the Weald. Unpublished PhD. thesis. University of Reading
(for this site see page(s) 146)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Brambletye Forge Parish: Forest Row
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4140 3500
Site Type: Forge Period: Modern
Century: 16 Earliest Date: 1562
Latest Date: 1574  
Dating evidence: The forge was built by 1562, when Thomas Lutman of Balcombe, who was in debt, leased it to Henry Bowyer, who paid six years rent to enable Lutman to discharge his obligations. The details were in dispute between Bowyer and Lutman in 1572, when the former still held the lease (TNA C3/24/65). By 1574 Drewe Pickhayes owned the forge, which was leased to Robert Reynolds, who also worked Mill Place furnace (TNA C3/289/8). Pickhayes sold Brambletye Manor to Robert Sackville in 1602, but the forge was not mentioned (TNA C3/289/8).
Site Description: Bay:
None surviving.
Water system:
Pond probably in dry hollow, downstream of which present stream has unnatural right angle bends.
Working area:
10m downstream of junction with ditch coming in from NE are forge bottoms in stream bed and horisontal timbers in both banks at water level. Timber in N bank is large slotted baulk, possibly part of a hammer support.
Re-use:
Dry pond area has mound of brick kiln debris with 52mm thick (i.e. pre-mid-seventeenth century) brick wasters, perhaps indicating early disuse of forge. Straker wrongly believed forge to be at site of later Brambletye Mill.

Auction particulars of Brambletye estate (1831) show a 2-acre enclosure named Forge Mill Mead. (Inf. from P. Wood of Turner, Rudge and Turner, East Grinstead).
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 241)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 317-8)

Persons with known connections to this site: Bowyer, Henry - Lessee/ironmaster 1552-aft 1572
Lutman, Thomas - Lessee bef 1562-bef 1574
Pickhayes, Drewe - Owner/ironmaster 1574-bef 1602
Reynolds, Robert - Lessee/ironmaster in 1574
Wyndesor, Edward - Owner ?bef 1558-1574

Site Name: Brambletye Manor Parish: Forest Row
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4210 3560
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Pettitt, J. et al. (1973) Reports of District Teams; Buxted. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 5. pp. 13

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Brambletye Manor Farm 1 Parish: Forest Row
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4120 3540
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: anon.. (1973) Inventory of Iron Sites visited by WIRG. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 6. pp. 17-31
(for this site see page(s) 18)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Brambletye Manor Farm 2 Parish: Forest Row
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4150 3505
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Medieval
Century: 14, 13 Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: anon.. (1973) Inventory of Iron Sites visited by WIRG. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 6. pp. 17-31
(for this site see page(s) 18)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Brambletye Manor Farm 3 Parish: Forest Row
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4160 3510
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Medieval
Century: 14, 13 Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: anon.. (1973) Inventory of Iron Sites visited by WIRG. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 6. pp. 17-31
(for this site see page(s) 18)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Brambletye Manor Farm 4 Parish: Forest Row
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4200 3580
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: anon.. (1973) Inventory of Iron Sites visited by WIRG. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 6. pp. 17-31
(for this site see page(s) 18)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Bramshott Chase Parish: Bramshott
District: East Hampshire River Basin: Wey
County: Hampshire OS Reference: SU 8680 3440
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Surrey Archaeological Society. (nd) Haslemere Section News. Surrey Archaeological Society

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Bramshott Hammer Parish: Bramshott
District: East Hampshire River Basin: Wey
County: Hampshire OS Reference: SU 8190 3440
Site Type: Forge Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17 Earliest Date: 1589
Latest Date: 1689  
Dating evidence: In August 1590 Edmund Fysher leased lands in Bramshott part of Ludshott manor, to Henry Champion, for the erection of a forge, although the manorial roll suggests that it may have already been in existence the previous year (TNA REQ 2/186/6; Queen's College library, Oxford Z.23(17)). About the same time Champion, of Bramshott forge, was purchasing sows from Thomas Bettesworth of Trotton (REQ 21165/34). The freehold tenancy was sold by Peter Fysher in 1609, probably to Henry Hooke who was certainly tenant before 1640 (Queen' Coll. Z.23(19); Hants RO IM36/4). His son, John, supplied shot to the government in 1667-75 (TNA WO 47/8 f. 19r). The forge was sold to Henry Streater in 1684 and a paper mill occupied the site from 1690 (Hants RO IM36/4).
Site Description: All features now covered by modern industrial development but glassy slag can be found in stream banks.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 450)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 357-8, 383, 391)

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1986) Standford furnace, Bramshott, Hampshire: a case of mistaken identity. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 6. pp. 42-44

Persons with known connections to this site: Bettesworth, Thomas - Supplier of cast-iron sows 1590-4
Campion, Henry - Lessee/ironmaster 1590-1606?
Fysher, Edmund - Owner 1590-bef 1609
Fysher, Peter - Owner ?-1609
Hooke, Henry - Owner/ironmaster ?1609-40
Hooke, John - Owner/ironmaster 1640-84

Site Name: Brays Hill Parish: Ashburnham
District: Rother River Basin: Ashbourne
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6760 1390
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: The site is adjacent to a large depression or pit said to be associated with the extraction of iron ore
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery: Kevin & Lynn Cornwell
References: Cornwell, K. & L.. (2007) Romano-British Bloomery site, Fore Wood, Crowhurst, and other unrecorded local sites. HAARG Journal. New Series, 23. pp. 17-18
(for this site see page(s) 18)

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2008) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 28. pp. 3-8
(for this site see page(s) 5)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Bream Wood Parish: Rotherfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5230 3310
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: anon.. (1976) Inventory of Sites visited by WIRG. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 9. pp. 2-18
(for this site see page(s) 2)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Brede Furnace Parish: Brede
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 8010 1920
Site Type: Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17, 18 Earliest Date: 1578
Latest Date: 1766  
Dating evidence: Built in 1577, the furnace was originally operated by David Willard, Michael Weston and Robert Woddy (Acts of the Privy Council, X (1587-8), 265: ESRO RYE/1/4/285). It is not known when the works became Sackville property, but a theft of an iron pot from a furnace in Brede, property of John Sackville, was recorded in 1609 (ESRO QR/E/9.108). Lawrence Lenard (d. 1605) and Richard Lenard were successively tenants, and the fireback of 1636, portraying a furnace is assumed to have been made at Brede (Straker 1931a:342). Agreements over the subsequent 25 years show how the Brede works were run by Peter Farnden (sen.) and the executors of Thomas Sackville (d.1639), how in 1652 the second Sir Thomas Sackville leased the works to Nathaniel Powell who, in 1659, assigned the lease to Samuel Gott and Peter Farnden (jun.), and how Farnden and Gott leased the works to Thomas Western and Charles Harvie in 1662 (ESRO DUN 27/3, 48/2). The furnace worked in 1653 and 1664. According to Salzman (1937, 168), John Browne acquired the site from Sir Thomas Sackville in 1676/7, selling it to Thomas and Maximilian Western in 1693, but Browne died in 1677. Thomas Western was casting iron mortar carriages at Brede in 1687 (TNA WO51/34 f. 110r). In 1717 it was noted as producing 200 tons. It was marked on Budgen's map of 1724. William Harrison was paying Land Tax for the furnace from 1720 and was casting guns at Brede in 1735 (ESRO SAS RF15/25:26.7.35), and the operations of Harrison and his executors are well documented 1741-7 (RF15/25:23.6.42, 23.10.49; Guildhall MSS 3736, 6482). Weale refers to it as 'down' in 1787 (Sc. Museum: Weale MSS) while Straker's information was that abandonment took place in 1766, before conversation to a powder mill (Straker 1931a:343).
Site Description: Bay:-
Completely destroyed by later reservoir construction but probably ran across valley between reservoir dam and main road to S.
Working area:
In bay area is black soil, glassy slag and a bear just inside gate leading to road. In field opposite on S side of road, is also black soil, slag and clay moulds.
Re-use:
Powder mill.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: Yes
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hulme, E. W.. (1929) Statistical History of the Iron Trade of England and Wales, 1717-1750. Transactions of the Newcomen Society. 9. pp. 12-35
(for this site see page(s) 22)

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 341-4)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 318, 384)

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2007) A godly chimney plate and other firebacks from Brede. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 27. pp. 18-26

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 3)

Salzman, L. F.. (1937) Victoria County History of Sussex, Vol. 9, Hastings Rape. Oxford University Press. Oxford
(for this site see page(s) 168)

Persons with known connections to this site: Colman, Symon - pot founder in 1635
Diamond, John - gun founder in and bef 1685
Farnden, Peter - Co-lessee/ironmaster 1659-62
Farnden, Peter - Part-owner/ironmaster 1645-6
Gott, Samuel - Co-lessee/ironmaster 1659-62
Harrison, Andrews - Lessee 1750-66?
Harrison, William - Lessee/ironmaster 1720-45
Harte, John - gunfounder in 1685
Harvie, Charles - Lessee 1662-73?
Hussey, Thomas - Partner/ironmaster 1725-35
Jarrett, Richard - founder 1686-1708
Ketchle, John - worker 1678-1708
Legas, John - (Partner/)ironmaster 1722-52
Lenard, Lawrence - Tenant/ironmaster ?-1605
Lenard, Richard - Tenant/ironmaster 1605?-aft 1636
Levett, John - clerk in 1577
Oxenbridge, Robert - Owner 1616-bef 1638
Oxenbridge, Robert - Owner 1578-1616
Powell, Nathaniel - Lessee 1652-9
Sackville, John - Owner 1639-45
Sackville, Thomas - Owner 1645-93
Sackville, Thomas - Owner bef 1638-9
Smersall, Samuel - manager c.1745-bef 1750
Standen, John - moulder in 1760
Standen, John - gun founder in 1760
Tapsell, Richard - ironmaster 1752-66
Western, Maximilian - (Co-)owner 1693-1720
Western, Thomas - Lessee/ironmaster 1662-73?; co-owner 1693-1707
Weston, Michael - Lessee/ironmaster 1577-8
White, William - Part-owner/trustee 1639-45
Willard, David - Lessee/ironmaster 1577-?
Woddy, Robert - Lessee/ironmaster 1577-?

Site Name: Breechers (Marriotts Croft) Forge Parish: Frant
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6270 3840
Site Type: Bloomforge, Forge Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17 Earliest Date: 1557
Latest Date: 1619  
Dating evidence: This forge is apt to be confused with Benhall and Melhill. A Mr Wybarne had ironworks with alien employees in 1544 (Archives of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster 12261) but these are more likely to have been at Bayham. It was probably his son, John, who is listed with Leeche in 1574 as holding two forges, named Breechers in Frant, both worked by Robert Woddy, but the likelihood is that Wyborne had Marriotts Croft and Leeche had Benhall (q.v.). Woddy signed the bond. Straker names Roger Breecher as tenant in 1557, holding it from the Manor of Frant, and Galfridus/Jeffrey May in 1576, but Breecher's descendants retained control until 1612. The forge is specifically named in 1589 in the hands of John Wybarne (ESRO DYK/237), in 1602 when Edmund Willard was named as tenant (DYK/240), and in 1612 in the hands of Hugh Muddle (DYK/242). The forge in the hands of William Wybarne, but formerly of John Saunders, described as 'lately decayed' in a deed of 1605 (ESRO, DYK/40) is more likely to be Benhall. Straker names the tenants in 1614 and 1618 as Hugh and John Muddle, and found a reference of 1634 (KHLC, U840/M12 Synninglye Court Baron 1523-1656) to a place 'where the iron mill lately stood' (Straker 1931, 265-6). This document notes that the forge ceased operation and was dismantled during the lifetime of John Muddle (d. 1629).
Site Description: No sign of bay, water system or working area to be found. Some cinder in the path and field at TQ 6270 3870.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 264-7)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 318)

Persons with known connections to this site: Bartholomew, Richard - Co-owner aft 1602-12
Bartholomew, Richard - Owner 1602-12
Breecher, Bennett - Part Owner bef 1589-1612
Breecher, Mary - Part Owner aft 1589-bef 1612
Breecher, Roger - Owner/ironmaster 1557-67
Dunstone, William - Co-part-owner in 1602
Godard, John - forge man in 1525
May, Jeffrye - (?Co-)lessee 1576-aft 1589
Muddle, Hugh - Owner/forgemaster 1612-16
Muddle, John - Owner/forgemaster 1616-bef 1629
Willard, Edmund - Lessee/ironmaster in 1602
Woddy, Robert - Tenant/ironmaster in 1574
Wybarne, John - (?Co-)lessee/ironmaster 1573-91?
Wybarne, William - ?Lessee in 1605

Site Name: Brick Kiln Wood Parish: Mayfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5822 2929
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Cattell, C. S.. (1970) Preliminary research findings relating to the bloomery period of the iron industry of the upper basin of the eastern Rother (East Sussex). Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group. 4. 1. pp. 18-20
(for this site see page(s) 18-20)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Brickhouse Shaw Parish: Battle
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7156 1797
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: The slag heap is visible on the west bank of the stream and is exposed as soon as you break the surface. The bank is very steep where the slag can be seen.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology: Ashdown Beds, with Sand in Wadhurst Clay adjacent to the west
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery: Lynn and Kevin Cornwell
References: Cornwell, K. & L.. (2007) Romano-British Bloomery site, Fore Wood, Crowhurst, and other unrecorded local sites. HAARG Journal. New Series, 23. pp. 17-18
(for this site see page(s) 18)

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2008) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 28. pp. 3-8
(for this site see page(s) 5)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Brickhurst Wood 1 Parish: Mayfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5900 2776
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: An extensive bloomery between the two arms of the Brickhurst Stream, the slag extends for 27 metres into the field to the south. Hearth bottoms and furnace lining have been found, together with two sherds of probable Romano British pottery.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: Yes CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 2
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1999) Romano-British iron production in the Sussex and Kent Weald: a review of current data. Historical Metallurgy. 33, no. 2. pp. 68-72
(for this site see page(s) 70)

anon.. (1985) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 5. pp. 2-8
(for this site see page(s) 2-3)

Cattell, C. S.. (1970) Preliminary research findings relating to the bloomery period of the iron industry of the upper basin of the eastern Rother (East Sussex). Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group. 4. 1. pp. 18-20
(for this site see page(s) 18-20)

Fletcher, A. W.. (1956) Primitive bloomeries at Mayfield. Sussex Notes and Queries. 14. 9 & 10. pp. 173

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 381)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Brickhurst Wood 2 Parish: Mayfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5930 2810
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: anon.. (1972) Investigations by the Buxted team. Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 3. pp. 10-12
(for this site see page(s) 11)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Brickhurst Wood 3 Parish: Mayfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5890 2770
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: anon.. (1969) [List of Sites]. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 1. pp. 13-18
(for this site see page(s) 18)

Fletcher, A. W.. (1956) Primitive bloomeries at Mayfield. Sussex Notes and Queries. 14. 9 & 10. pp. 173
(for this site see page(s) 173)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Brickhurst Wood, Iridge Parish: Salehurst
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7520 2770
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence: Trench 1 produced a single sherd of East Sussex Wealden Ware, of earlier Romano-British date.
Site Description: The Romano-British bloomery site in Brickhurst Wood is located approximately 25m downstream from the confluence of the Fillbrook and the Iridge Furnace stream that drains into the Kent Ditch. The bloomery is located at the base of a slope under arable cultivation, which, until recently, used to be occupied by Brickhurst Wood. Bloomery slag that has eroded out of the stream bank can still be traced in the Fillbrook and at the Furnace stream. A coherent deposit of slag extends for 10m along the eastern bank of the Fillbrook, centred at approximately TQ 7521 2765. Where exposed in the stream-bank section, the deposit was made up of cinder, tap slag, fire-reddened stone, iron stone, charcoal and excessively roasted ore which would have been unusable for the smelting operations. Much massive slag was also in evidence. No further indications of bloomery iron production were recovered along the tributary stream for 0.5km in either direction. Because of colluvial action, the slag deposit extends to a maximum depth of 50-60cm at the base of the slope, although this was not densely packed. At the top of the slope the slag is hardly evident at all. Although the slag heap extends as a linear deposit for over 10m along the streamside, and for 3-4m up-slope, it does not actually represent a significant volume, even allowing for some loss of slag in the stream. An approximation of the volume of the slag matrix is 12m3, of lightly-packed slag and cinder. The slag recovered from approximately 50cm3 of the deposit yielded 17.4kg, of material, which equates to a weight of 139.2 kg/m3. Based on these figures the total weight of slag in the whole deposit would be 1.670 tonnes.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: Yes CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology: Geologically the site is located at the point where the down throw of the Hurst Green fault crosses the Fillbrook, creating a junction between the Ashdown Sand on the valley floor and the Wadhurst Clay higher up in Brickhurst Wood field.
Description of site vegetation: The slope above the site, now under arable cultivation, has extensive evidence of patches of charcoal-rich soil, which derive from bonfires, probably of recent origin, resulting from the grubbing of Brickhurst Wood. The site is currently heavily overgrown with brambles and holly, in conjunction with woody vegetation of oak, birch, and alder.
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : 35 Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 1
Persons Involved in Discovery: J. Kaminski
References: Kaminski, J. (1995) The environmental implications of Romano-British iron production in the Weald. Unpublished PhD. thesis. University of Reading
(for this site see page(s) 190-99)

anon.. (1976) Inventory of Sites visited by WIRG. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 9. pp. 2-18
(for this site see page(s) 3)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Broadfield Parish: Crawley
District: Crawley River Basin: Mole
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 2580 3530
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman, Iron Age
Century: 02, 03, 01, 04, 1BC Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: Domestic and industrial areas which are thought to cover 12 hectares were revealed by rescue excavations in advance of building development at Broadfield and Southgate West. Many of the stages in manufacturing iron by the bloomery process are represented by features which include ore-roasting areas, three slag dumps, 40+ smelting furnaces, puddling pits, a water reservoir and a blacksmith's workshop. the site spans a shallow valley with sandstone hills to the south. The main occupation is at the base of these hills at 80m above sea level, on Weald Clay. One of the excavated domestic settlements was found to be surrounded by a ditch and low bank, enclosing a rectangular area, measuring approximately 76m x 63m. Two substantial buildings were uncovered inside this area, as well as various post pits and walls indicating others. In the north-east corner of the enclosure a rectangular area of slag and furnace debris has been interpreted as hard standing for transport.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: Yes CLBR: No
Samian pottery: Yes Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 3
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1999) Romano-British iron production in the Sussex and Kent Weald: a review of current data. Historical Metallurgy. 33, no. 2. pp. 68-72
(for this site see page(s) 70)

Pine, J.. (2013) A re-investigation of Late Iron Age and Roman iron production, and Saxon activity, at Rathlin Road, Crawley. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 151. pp. 13-25

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 297)

Gibson-Hill, J.. (1975) The excavation of a Romano-British ironworking site at Broadfields, Crawley, West Sussex. Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology. 12. pp. 35-42
(for this site see page(s) 35-41)

Gibson-Hill, J.. (1976) Further excavations at the Romano-British ironworking site at Broadfields, Crawley, West Sussex. Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology. 13. pp. 23-32

Gibson-Hill, J.. (1980) Cylindrical shaft furnaces of the early Wealden iron industry: circa 100BC to 300AD. Historical Metallurgy. 14. 1. pp. 21-27

Cartwright, C. (1992) The excavation of a Romano-British iron working site at Broadfield, Crawley, West Sussex. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 130

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Broadfield Forest Parish: Crawley
District: Crawley River Basin: Mole
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 2580 3440
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Gibson-Hill, J.. (1973) Reports of District Teams; Crawley. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 5. pp. 14-15

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Broadhurst Furnace Parish: Burwash
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6310 2420
Site Type: Furnace Period: Modern
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence: Awty (1984, 31) has suggested this may be the furnace at which Bartholomew Jeffrey was employing 'alien' ironworkers between 1549-52.
Site Description: Bay:
L 55m H 4m/4m across steep narrow valley.
Water system:
Pond dry. Spillway stream from dip at E end of bay for 100m to stream. Pen pond bays (Straker) uncertain.
Working area:
Much glassy slag in stream and E side of valley. Trackway on terrace to E end of bay.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 4 Bay Length (m.): 55
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 287)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 319)

Awty, B. G.. (1984) Aliens in the ironworking areas of the Weald: the Subsidy Rolls, 1524-1603. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. Second series, 4. pp. 13-78
(for this site see page(s) 31)

Persons with known connections to this site: Everet, John - ironworker 1552-60?
Hese, Peter - founder in 1549
Jeffrey, Bartholomew - Lessee? 1549-52
unknown, Michaell - ironworker in 1552

Site Name: Brook House / Oxley Wood 1 Parish: Buxted
District: Wealden River Basin: Ouse
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5060 2730
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: 04 Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence: Excavation in a large slag heap produced a number of sherds of Romano-British pottery.
A superficial examination produced pieces of a small narrow-necked vessel which Mr. N. E. S. Norris has assigned to the late Romano-British period.
Site Description: The site is located on the north bank of a small rill and does not appear to be extensive, though the cinder heap may possibly have been drawn upon to some extent for the metalling of a cart track which leads northwards from Brook House.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: Yes CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 1
Persons Involved in Discovery: Mrs Joan Turner
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1999) Romano-British iron production in the Sussex and Kent Weald: a review of current data. Historical Metallurgy. 33, no. 2. pp. 68-72
(for this site see page(s) 71)

anon.. (1972) Investigations by the Buxted team. Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 3. pp. 10-12
(for this site see page(s) 11)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 296)

Mason, R. T.. (1957) Romano-British bloomery at Rotherfield. Sussex Notes and Queries. 14. 15 & 16. pp. 278
(for this site see page(s) 278)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Brookland Forge Parish: Frant
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6180 3490
Site Type: Bloomery, Forge, Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17 Earliest Date: 1521
Latest Date: 1629  
Dating evidence: The earliest reference, cited by Straker, is to John Barham's purchase of Brookland and Verredge forges from Humphrey Lewknor in 1521 (KHLC U840/T109). They remained in the Barham family until their abandonment. In 1544 aliens were employed by John Barham (WAM 12261), and a case of 1552 shows him operating the two forges (TNA C1/1201/14). A furnace is mentioned in 1534 in connection with a murder , of which William Fownder alias Frengman of Wadhurst was accused (TNA KB 9/529). In 1556 Barham was involved in a case regarding the supply of 92 tons of iron to Humfrey Collet of St. Saviours, Southwark (TNA C24/41 pt 1). In 1574 John Carpenter farmed Brinklaw/Brokelaw forge from Thomas Gresham (see also Henly furnace): the latter must have in turn leased from John Barham (1574 list), in whose will of 1583 (TN PROB11/64/41) Brookland was left to his son. Abandonment lies between a lease to Thomas Saunders of 1610, and 1640, this being the first occasion when the forge was described as decayed (KHLC U840/T109/5). A reference of 1636 (ESRO DYK 497) does not state whether the works was in use, although as late as 1629 sows were brought there from Snape furnace (ESRO Q1/EW/1:15.1.29).
Site Description: Bay:
L 65m H 1.5m/long gentle slope. The length away from stream may be natural. Section at N bank of stream shows two periods of construction of equal height, turf line between.
Water system:
Pond dry. In shallow stream bed is hollowed-out wooden trough L 7m w 30cm, and further section L 4.5m (in line) possible trough for overshot wheel.
Working area:
Stream bed has much forge cinder and bottoms. On grass meadow downstream of bay molehills show black soil with bloomery tap slag.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 1.5 Bay Length (m.): 65
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 278-80)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 319, 384)

Persons with known connections to this site: Averell, Gilbert - forgeman in 1550, or at Verredge Forge
Barham, John - Owner 1591-bef 1642
Barham, John - Owner 1521-58
Barham, John - Owner 1583-91
Barham, John - Owner/ironmaster 1558-83
Bennett, Richard - forgeman in 1560, or at Verredge Forge
Bigod, Peter - forgeman in 1551, or at Verredge Forge
Bleweto, Lawrence - forgeman in 1543, or at Verredge Forge
Bodying, John - forgeman in 1524, or at Verredge Forge
Carpenter, John - Tenant/ironmaster bef 1574-aft 1583
Collet, Stephen - forgeman in 1549, or at Verredge Forge
Dechyn, William - forgeman in 1551, or at Verredge Forge
Gardambas, John - forgeman in 1543, or at Verredge Forge
Good, Nicholas - forgeman in 1576, or at Verredge Forge
Gresham, Thomas - Lessee bef 1574-79
Harby, Peter - forgeman in 1524, or at Verredge Forge
Harve, John - forgeman in 1549, or at Verredge Forge
Harve, Remye - forgeman in 1549, or at Verredge Forge
Hayward, Symon - forgeman in 1551, or at Verredge Forge
Hedoll, Michael - forgeman in 1552, or at Verredge Forge
Johnson, John - forgeman in 1576, or at Verredge Forge
Lamberd, Marian - forgeman in 1543, or at Verredge Forge
Lambert, Nicholas - forgeman in 1549, or at Verredge Forge
Lamme, Isambarde - forgeman in 1544, or at Verredge Forge
Lewknor, Humphrey - Owner ?-1521
Nayler, John - nailmaker in 1543
Pullen, Barton - forgeman in 1550, or at Verredge Forge
Pynyon, John - forgeman in 1552, or at Verredge Forge
Ramset, Thomas - forgeman in 1551, or at Verredge Forge
Roboye, John - forgeman in 1549, or at Verredge Forge
Russell, Giketus - forgeman in 1550, or at Verredge Forge
Russell, Peter - forgeman in 1543, or at Verredge Forge
Saunders, Thomas - Lessee/ironmaster 1610-bet 1629-42
Saundre, John - forgemaster? in 1576, or at Verredge Forge
Soberis, Gilham - forgeman in 1543, or at Verredge Forge
Streter, Laurence - forgeman in 1524, or at Verredge Forge
Trantham, John - forgeman in 1551, or at Verredge Forge
Turner, Peter - forgeman in 1543, or at Verredge Forge
le Bages, Reme - forgeman in 1524, or at Verredge Forge

Site Name: Brookside Farm Parish: Hadlow Down / Framfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Ouse
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5410 2230
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Browndown Parish: Heathfield and Waldron
District: Wealden River Basin: Cuckmere
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6040 1980
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: MacLeod, D.. (1926) Forgotten smelting sites in East Sussex. Sussex Notes and Queries. 1. 7. pp. 224-5
(for this site see page(s) 224)

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 374)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Brownings Parish: Framfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Ouse
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5200 2010
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: anon.. (1972) Investigations by the Buxted team. Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 3. pp. 10-12
(for this site see page(s) 11)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Brownknoll Gill Parish: Buxted
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4950 3010
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Buckholt Forge and Furnace Parish: Bexhill
District: Rother River Basin: Asten
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7460 1130
Site Type: Forge, Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17 Earliest Date: 1574
Latest Date: 1664  
Dating evidence: Bartholomew Jeffrey was the tenant of Lord Dacre for a furnace and forge at Buckholt in 1574. He died in 1575 (ESRO A6/321-3; TNA REQ2/84/37), and the tenancy went to Thomas Alfrey and others in respect of debts owed to them. A lease to William Waters was a subject of dispute in 1579 (TNA REQ2/80/18). By 1634 the works, probably only the forge, was operated by Richard Farnden (ESRO Dunn 49/19); Richard Alchorne was paying rent for the forge from 1643 (Bedwin 1980, 96) and it (referred to as Buckhall) was in use in 1653, but by 1664 it was infrequently operated. Anthony Gardiner of Bexhill described himself as hammerman in his will of 1652 (TNA PROB/11/241). The forge alone is mentioned as abandoned, in 1683 (ESRO RAF 9/3).
Site Description: Bay:
L 85m H 4m/3m Breached by stream towards N end.
Water system:
Pond dry. Overspill at extreme S end of bay from which 220m channel (now dry) joined stream.
Working area:
3m behind bay, just S of stream, many bricks (5cm thick) and roof tiles (square peg-holes) under layer of forge cinder and bottoms. Nearby, rusted mass of square-section nails found. Quantities of forge waste in and behind bay; little glassy furnace slag.
Buckholt Farm house is contemporary and probably for the ironmaster.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 4 Bay Length (m.): 85
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 356-7)

Bedwin, O. (1980) The excavation of a late 16th century blast furnace at Batsford, Herstmonceux, East Sussex, 1978. Post-Medieval Archaeology. 14. pp. 89-112
(for this site see page(s) 96)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 319-20)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 5)

Persons with known connections to this site: Alchorne, Richard - Lessee/ironmaster 1643-?
Alfrey, Thomas - Lessee aft 1575-90?
Farnden, Richard - Lessee?/ironmaster ?-1634
Fiennes, Gregory - Owner bef 1574-94
Fiennes, Margaret - Owner 1594-1612
Gardiner, Anthony - hammerman in 1652?
Growshe , unknown - iron worker in 1572
Jeffrey, Bartholomew - Lessee/ironmaster bef 1574-5
Lennard, Francis - Owner 1630-62?
Lennard, Henry - Owner 1612-16
Lennard, Richard - Owner 1616-30
Waters, William - Lessee/ironmaster 1575-aft 1579

Site Name: Buckhurst Stream 1 Parish: Buxted
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4865 2929
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: anon.. (1972) Investigations by the Buxted team. Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 3. pp. 10-12
(for this site see page(s) 10)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Buckhurst Stream 2 Parish: Buxted
District: Wealden River Basin: Ouse
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4830 2950
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Bugsell Forge Parish: Salehurst
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7240 2560
Site Type: Forge Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17 Earliest Date: 1559
Latest Date: 1653  
Dating evidence: This forge was built in the lifetime of Joan Walsh (d. 1559) (ESRO A4/506), who leased to Hugh Collyer/Collyn (Vivian 1953:114; TNA C3/13/103). George May operated the works as a tenant in 1574. In 1611 Sir Robert Walsh sold the forge to Thomas Foxall and Edward Allen (ESRO, SAS-RF/9/63), only for them to transfer the property to John Busbridge in the following year (ESRO SAS RF9/63, 64), Busbridge, with Edward Heigham, being party to the earlier deed, presumably as mortgagers. It was working in 1653, but ruined by 1664.
Site Description: Bay:
L 90m H 0.5m, partly levelled.
Water system:
Pond dry.
Working area:
Completely obscured by later corn mill. Large quantity forge cinder and bottoms in remains of bay SW of mill.
Re-use:
Corn mill, which appears to have been supplied by upstream leat to smaller mill pond, bypassing forge pond.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 0.5 Bay Length (m.): 90
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 300)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 320)

Teesdale, E. B.. (1986) The 1574 lists of ironworks in the Weald. A re-examination. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. Second series, 6. pp. 7-41
(for this site see page(s) 34)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 5)

Persons with known connections to this site: Allen, Edward - Co-owner 1611-12
Busbridge, John - Owner/ironmaster 1612-14
Busbridge, John - Owner/ironmaster 1614-?
Collins, Hugh - Lessee/ironmaster bef 1559-bef 1574
Dechyn, William - ironworker in 1550
Foxall, Thomas - Co-owner 1611-12
Mallet, Collen - ironworker in 1552
Margoo, John - ironworker in 1550
May, George - Lessee/ironmaster in 1574
Russell, Abre - ironworker in 1550
Turke, John - ironworker in 1550
Walsh, Goddard - ironmaster 1549-52
Walsh, Joan - Owner ?-1559
Walsh, Robert - Owner 1559-1611

Site Name: Bungehurst Furnace Parish: Heathfield and Waldron
District: Wealden River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5992 2397
Site Type: Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16 Earliest Date: 1574
Latest Date: 1574  
Dating evidence: There are no certain references, although Straker quotes Bell-Irving 1903:176, in favour of its operation by the Baker family, supported by the 1574 record of Sir Richard Baker having two furnaces in Heathfield and Warbleton.
Site Description: Bay:
L 48m H 2.5m/3m. Breached by stream and 1 dry gap.
Water system:
Pond dry.
Working area:
A gap has been formed in the middle of the bay and this probably represents the position of the sluice which fed the waterwheel of the furnace, as adjacent to this gap, on the downstream side, there is a mound of brick and slag debris which was, in all probability, the site of the furnace stack. The present course of the stream from the south flows towards the gap, but it veers south eastwards along the bay before breaking through at the extreme eastern end. The stream then traverses the site and continues to flow along what was probably the original tail race. The stream has broken through the bay where the former spillway may have been sited. Projected away from it along the length of the site, there is an embanked, man made channel to remove overflowing water from the working area. This rejoins the stream about 75m to the north cast. This channel has been blocked at the south west end. The mound of debris that probably constitutes the remains of the furnace lies at the end of a raised bank which may have formed the charging bank. Near to the end of this bank and uphill from it, is a dense area of charcoal fines and pieces. The position of this area probably represents the location of the charcoal store. Although there is blast furnace slag in most parts of the site, the principal heap is located beside the embanked spillway channel, and this has extended sufficiently to cause the course of the present stream to bend round the heap.

Straker's description matches this site, but the location he gives is incorrect. Cleere & Crossley's description and location do not match this site, but refer to another site further downstream, no evidence of which appears to have survived.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 4 Bay Length (m.): 40
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 287)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 320, 384)

Houghton, R. G., & Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2005) Bungehurst Furnace, Heathfield - Site Survey. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 25. pp. 19-21

Persons with known connections to this site: Bakaell, Philippe - possible hammerman in 1544
Baker, Richard - ?Owner in 1574
Baynowe, Peter - finer in 1549
Blancke, Robert - ?finer 1549-51
Borde, Thomas - possible iron worker in 1544
Curleggo, John - ironworker in 1551
Deprey, Marian - iron worker in 1544
Freman, William - iron worker in 1544
Haunyng, John - ironworker in 1552
Isted, Joan - ?Lessee/ironmaster ?-1558
Lawrence, Giles - founder in 1549
Lawrens, Peter - ironworker in 1551
Lyonarde, John - possible iron worker in 1544
Maryon, John - miner in 1549
Ogyer, William - iron worker in 1544
Richard, Nicholas - possible collier in 1544
Russell, Onyan - possible hammerman in 1544
Shermun, John - iron worker in 1544

Site Name: Burgh Wood (Kitchingham) Forge Parish: Etchingham
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7170 2760
Site Type: Forge Period: Modern
Century: 16 Earliest Date: 1542
Latest Date: 1543  
Dating evidence: In his will of 1542, John Fowle of Kechyngham, in Etchingham, left his iron mill to his daughter, Mildred. According to the resulting Post Mortem inquisition, in 1543, the land on which the forge stood, was owned by Robert Tyrwhitt. By 1548 the property was in the hands of Goddard Bachelar, who had married Fowle's daughter, Marion. By 1597 the property had become a possession of the May family of Pashley, although there is no evidence that the forge was working by that date.
Site Description: Bay:
L 100m H 2m/2.5m. Breached at E and W ends, and by stream.
Water system:
Pond dry. Spillway site and deeply scoured pit at W end. Spillway stream runs for 370m along W side of valley to where earthworks suggest possible mill.
Working area:
Black soil, forge cinder and bottom behind and in bay at E end where there is a slightly raised area. Shallow pits at W end may denot removal of cinder heaps.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 2.5 Bay Length (m.): 100
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 320)

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1997) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 17. pp. 2-9
(for this site see page(s) 6-8)

Dalton, A. (1997) Burgh Wood Forge, Etchingham. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd ser., 17. pp. 40-5
(for this site see page(s) 40-5)

Attree, F. W. T.. (1912) Notes of post-mortem inquisitions taken in Sussex. Sussex Record Society vol 14. Lewes
(for this site see page(s) 90-1)

Persons with known connections to this site: Bachelar, Goddard - Lessee in 1548
Fowle, John - Lessee/ironmaster ?-1543
Fowle, Mildred - Lessee 1543-bef 1548
The Crown - Owner bef 1542-aft 1548

Site Name: Burningfold Forge & Furnace Parish: Dunsfold
District: Waverley River Basin: Arun
County: Surrey OS Reference: TQ 0040 3430
Site Type: Forge, Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17, 18 Earliest Date: 1568
Latest Date: 1758  
Dating evidence: The earliest references, in 1568-9, are to a forge (TNA REQ2/115/2, 177/32), although the presence of foreign workers, associated elsewhere with the iron industry, suggest operation as early as the 1550s. Richard March had the works in 1570 (Malden 1910, 68) and they were being operated by Thomas Gratwick in 1574. In 1579 Thomas Smith of Petworth left a share in this forge to his wife, Barbara (TNA PROB 11/61/388), and by 1583 Simon Bowyer was tenant (TNA REQ2/125/14). A furnace is mentioned by Norden in 1595 (BL Add. MSS 31853). In 1604 the ironworks were sold by William Marsh to George Duncombe and partners (TNA C54/1924 m29; Malden 1910, 73). It was in the ownership of John Middleton and Richard Wyatt at the latter's death in 1618, he leaving his part to his son Francis. From 1638 it was entirely in the hands of the Middletons, until being sold in 1667 to Sir Henry Goring. A forge at Dunsfold is listed as working in 1653 and 1667. Aubrey mentions an iron-mill in 1673 (Bodleian MS Aubrey 4 - A Perambulation in Surrey - begun 1673). The Gorings sold to John Tanner in 1722. In Jan 1753 Thomas Tanner sold the ironworks and equipment to Lord Montague (WSRO Add MSS 5833, 5836-7); 'Mr Jewkes and Company' (see Robertsbridge) are listed as former tenants at that time. Lists of furnaces closed between 1750 and 1787 mention a site referred to respectively as 'Burnham' and 'Burhamfold', owned by Mr Butler (Science Mus Lib MS 37111; Birmingham City Lib Boulton & Watt Muirhead 11).
Site Description: Bay:
L 110m H 3m/4m. Breached by stream at S end.
Water system:
Pond dry.
Working area:
Furnace site in copse, with much charcoal dust. Glassy slag in stream but no forge cinder seen.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: Yes
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 4 Bay Length (m.): 110
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Malden, H. E.. (1910) Burningfold in Dunsfold. Surrey Archaeological Collections. 23. pp. 61-75

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 422-3)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 320-1, 384)

Teesdale, E. B.. (1986) The 1574 lists of ironworks in the Weald. A re-examination. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. Second series, 6. pp. 7-41
(for this site see page(s) 26-7)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 6)

Persons with known connections to this site: Bartyne, John - iron worker in 1559
Bowyer, Simon - Tenant/ironmaster in 1583
Browne, Anthony - Owner 1753-bef 1767?
Burdett, Thomas - Part owner 1604-bef 1622
Butler, John - ?Lessee/ironmaster aft 1753?
Duncombe, George - Part owner 1604-7
Garrett, John - iron worker in 1559
Goring, Charles - Owner 1702-13
Goring, Harry - Owner 1713-22
Goring, Henry - Owner 1657-1702
Gratwick, Thomas - Tenant/ironmaster in 1574
Jukes, George - Lessee/ironmaster bef 1753
Lamme, Isambarde - iron worker in 1551
Marche, Richard - Owner bef 1568-84
Marche, William - Owner 1584-1604
Middleton, Arthur - Part owner 1636-?
Middleton, Arthur - Co-owner 1639-57
Middleton, Edward - Co-owner 1639-57
Middleton, Francis - Co-owner 1639-57
Middleton, John - Part owner/ironmaster 1604-1636
Middleton, Thomas - Co-owner 1639-57
Smith, Barbara - Co-lessee? 1579-?
Smith, Thomas - Co-lessee?/ironmaster ?-1579
Tanner, John - Owner 1722-51
Tanner, Thomas - Owner 1751-3
Wyatt, Francis - Part-owner 1618-bef 1625
Wyatt, Henry - Part owner bef 1625-38
Wyatt, Richard - One-third part owner 1604-19
unknown, Roger - iron worker in 1552

Site Name: Burnt Wood, Newick Farm Parish: Heathfield and Waldron
District: Wealden River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5950 2270
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: anon.. (1972) Investigations by the Buxted team. Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 3. pp. 10-12
(for this site see page(s) 12)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Burnthouse Wood 2 Parish: Beckley
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 8490 2080
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: A dense surface concentration of bloomery slag has been found in Burnthouse Wood, at TQ 8490 2080, on the upper edge of a very large pit, surrounded by the depressions left by pits of the small shaft type. This is about 220m from the location given for the large site previously recorded in Burnthouse Wood and appears to be quite separate. Slag is of variable size, with some fist-sized lumps and.some smaller pieces, apparently fractured. Some tap slag was found. Some of the slag has a surface colour of brown to purple with a smooth shiny texture that may indicate a very long period of weathering on the surface. The area of surface scatter is about 25m long and a maximum of 10m across. No charcoal or ore fines were visible on a cursory inspection.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology: Blue/black clay in (base of) Wadhurst beds.
Description of site vegetation: Vegetation is woodland: Oak, hornbeam, field maple, elder and hawthorn with abundant nettle and also dog's mercury and some anemone.
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : 250 Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery: J.L.Prus
References: Prus, J. L.. (2010) Two bloomeries in Beckley, East Sussex. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 30. pp. 3-4

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Burnthouse Wood, Ludley Farm Parish: Beckley
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 8480 2060
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: 02 Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: Located in Burnthouse Wood, this site is represented by a large slag and refuse bank (50 x 100m) which appears to have been disturbed, probably for road metalling. Trial excavation in the slag bank has produced a considerable amount of pottery, including Samian, identified as second century, together with a coin of Hadrian. A series of small depressions in Oak Wood (TQ 85202090) may be filled orepits.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: Yes Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : 5000 Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 2
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1999) Romano-British iron production in the Sussex and Kent Weald: a review of current data. Historical Metallurgy. 33, no. 2. pp. 68-72
(for this site see page(s) 70)

Scott, A.. (1972) Hastings [Local Team Report]. Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 4. pp. 29
(for this site see page(s) 29)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 295)

Botting, W. J.. (1973) Romano-British ironworking site at Ludley Farm, Beckley. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 111. pp. 111

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Burstow Park Farm 1 Parish: Nutfield
District: Tandridge River Basin: Mole
County: Surrey OS Reference: TQ 3148 4774
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date: 0
Latest Date: 0  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2000) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 20. pp. 2-11
(for this site see page(s) 3)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Burstow Park Farm 2 Parish: Burstow
District: Tandridge River Basin: Mole
County: Surrey OS Reference: TQ 3253 4818
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date: 0
Latest Date: 0  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2001) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 21. pp. 2-8
(for this site see page(s) 3)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Burton Forge Parish: Duncton
District: Chichester River Basin: Arun
County: West Sussex OS Reference: SU 9790 1800
Site Type: Forge Period: Modern
Century: 17 Earliest Date: 1635
Latest Date: 1667  
Dating evidence: Sir William Goring's forge at Burton was described by Lieutenant Hammond in 1635 (Wickham Legg 1936:38). In the 1653 and 1667 lists, the forge was in operation. John Woods of Burton described himself as a 'ffyneryman' in his will of 1657 (TNA PROB/11/273). The inventory of George Tanner of Battlehurst, Kirdford, in 1667 includes '12 tons of iron at Burton Hammer' (WSRO Ep1/29/116).
Site Description: Bay:
L 175m H pond in water/4m. Form present road.
Water system:
Modern spillway at E end. Spillway at W end may be original, as spillway stream forms parish boundary.
Working area:
Forge cinder behind mill.
Re-use:
Corn mil.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 4 Bay Length (m.): 175
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 430-1)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 321)

Wickham Legg, L. G.. (1936) Miscellany 16: A relation of a short survey of the Western Counties. Camden Third Series. 52. pp. 1-128
(for this site see page(s) 38)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 6)

Persons with known connections to this site: Goring, Henry - Owner 1658-71
Goring, William - Owner bef 1635-58
Tanner, George - ?Lessee/ironmaster in 1667
Woods, John - fineryman in 1657

Site Name: Burwash (Collins') Forge Parish: Burwash
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6630 2310
Site Type: Forge Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17, 18, 19 Earliest Date: 1525
Latest Date: 1803  
Dating evidence: Probably not the fifteenth-century forge recorded in Burwash, the rent for which indicated it was more likely to have been a smithy. John Collins had the farm of the forge in 1523-4, only to be replaced the following year by David Harvy (ESRO ASH200A). However, Collins seems to have had the works thereafter, in conjunction with Socknersh furnace. His son, also John, held the forge in 1574. It was in Pelham's hands by 1589 (BL Add. MSS 33142, f.22). John Collins's son, Henry, was admitted to the forge in 1584 and received licence in 1596 to lease it for 8 years to Robert Cruttenden. Cruttenden died at the end of the year (TNA PROB 11/189/5) and Collins, his father-in-law, died in 1600, around which time the forge passed to Thomas Hepden (ESRO D165/60). Throughout the seventeenth-century it was known as 'Collins Forge' . In 1661 John Hepden of Burwash sold the forge to Jeffrey Glyd of Dallington (ESRO SAS RF1/1); it was not in use in 1653 and 1667. By 1672 it was purchased by Thomas Western for his son, Samuel (ESRO, SAS-RF/1/12). John Fuller purchased Burwash forge from the Westerns in 1700 (ESRO SAS RF1/19) and it remained Fuller property until their production ceased in 1803. From that year members of the Standen family may have continued to operate the forge until 1810. Output was 40 tons in the 1717 list, a figure repeated in 1736, and 30 tons in 1787 (Sc. Mus. Weale MSS). From 1719 until 1741 there are many references in ESRO SAS RF15/26.
Site Description: Bay:
L 65m H 1m/1.25m. Breached by stream at N end. S end now swamp.
Water system:
Pond dry.
Working area:
Featureless. Scattered forge cinder in and behind bay and in stream. A line of dressed stone in the bed of the stream where it breaches the bay is likely to be the remains of the weir marked on the 1st ed. OS 25 in. map.
A former bay is visible from the air, 100m W of present one, supporting a smaller pond. Behind this is scatter of equal quantities forge cinder and glassy furnace slag.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 1.25 Bay Length (m.): 65
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hulme, E. W.. (1929) Statistical History of the Iron Trade of England and Wales, 1717-1750. Transactions of the Newcomen Society. 9. pp. 12-35
(for this site see page(s) 22, 25)

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 303-5)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 321, 384)

Mees, K.. (2010) Documentary and literary evidence relating to Burwash Forge and Wynhamford Mill, East Sussex. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 30. pp. 10-29

Persons with known connections to this site: Ashburnham, John - Owner 1532-62
Ashburnham, William - Owner 1523-32
Barden, John - forgeman in 1524
Chandler, Richard - Co-owner in 1672
Christmas, unknown - ironworker in 1576
Collins, Alexander - Co-lessee 1536-42?
Collins, Bartholomew - Co-lessee 1536-42?
Collins, Henry - Lessee/ironmaster 1584-92
Collins, John - Lessee/ironmaster 1536-aft 1574
Collins, John - Lessee/ironmaster 1523-4, 1526-36
Cruttenden, Robert - Lessee/ironmaster in 1592
Darvie, John - forgeman in 1524
Frencheman, Cropper - forgeman in 1524
Frencheman, Jenken - forgeman in 1524
Fuller, John - Owner/ironmaster 1716-45
Fuller, John - Owner/ironmaster 1777-1803
Fuller, John - De facto owner/ironmaster 1700-16
Fuller, John - Owner/ironmaster 1745-55
Fuller, Rose - Owner/ironmaster 1755-77
Fuller, Stephen - ironmaster 1755-aft 1757?
Glyd, Jeffery - Owner/ironmaster 1661-?
Glydd, Richard - Co-owner in 1664
Gue, John - collier in 1550
Harvy, David - Lessee/ironmaster 1525
Hatto, Adrian - hammerman in 1524 & 49
Hepden, John - Owner ?-1661
Hepden, Thankfull - Lessee 1669-71
Hepden, Thomas - Owner 1592-?
Jelet, John - forgeman in 1524 & 40
Mynyon, John - collier in 1549
Turkes, John - forgeman in 1524
Western, Maximilian - De facto owner 1699-1700
Western, Samuel - (Nominal) owner 1672-99
Western, Thomas - (De facto) owner/ironmaster 1672-1699
Western, William - (Nominal) owner 1699-1716
Wright, William - Co-owner in 1672

Site Name: Bushy Wood Parish: Battle
District: Rother River Basin: Asten
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7600 1430
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1992) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 12. pp. 2-13
(for this site see page(s) 10)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Busses Wood Parish: East Grinstead
District: Mid-Sussex River Basin: Medway
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 3970 3510
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Bynes Farm Parish: Crowhurst
District: Rother River Basin: Asten
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7580 1100
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: 02, 01 Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: This is a very characteristic site, on the slope of a small valley. A section cut through the slag and refuse bank in 1949 revealed the typical make-up of slag, charcoal, furnace debris, etc, along with both single and double tuyeres. The large quantity of pottery found was dated to the first and second centuries AD.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: Yes CLBR: No
Samian pottery: Yes Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details: See Lucas 1950
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : 2000 Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 1
Persons Involved in Discovery: E. Straker
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1999) Romano-British iron production in the Sussex and Kent Weald: a review of current data. Historical Metallurgy. 33, no. 2. pp. 68-72
(for this site see page(s) 70)

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 358)

Lucas, B. H.. (1950) The Bynes Farm Romano-British bloomery. Sussex Notes and Queries. 13. 1. pp. 16-19
(for this site see page(s) 16-19)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Cabbagestalk Parish: Hartfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4600 3380
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1995) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 15. pp. 2-4

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Callers Corner Parish: Heathfield and Waldron
District: Wealden River Basin: Cuckmere
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 6110 1950
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: Here a track crosses a stream, and on the west side the old hollow-way has recently been widened on its south side. This has exposed a saucer-shaped layer of cinder and burnt clay (? furnace lining) about 5m long, at a depth of approximately 1m from the surface. No tap slag was seen.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery: Colin Rose
References: anon.. (1983) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 3. pp. 2-5
(for this site see page(s) 4)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Cansiron Forge Parish: Hartfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4530 3830
Site Type: Forge, Furnace (unsure) Period: Modern
Century: 16, 17 Earliest Date: 1574
Latest Date: 1700  
Dating evidence: In spite of the finds of furnace slag, the only references are to a forge. A survey of Duchy of Lancaster lands in 1563 mentions the forge, with adjacent lands belonging to William Bowyer (TNA DL 42/112 f. 165 73). Michael Weston was in occupation in 1574. Straker notes that in 1578 it passed from William Bowyer to his daughter, Frances, who later married Sir George Rivers, of Chafford in Penshurst. In the following year Cansiron forge is referred to on the boundary of Faulkenhurst (BL Add. MSS 5681, f.220). In 1587 Richard Barton and Richard Manning, of London, leased the forge to Thomas Browne for 11 years but the lease was reassigned to Richard Streatfeild two years later (KHL U908/T461/2). Straker then notes Sackville Turner's acquisition of the site in 1613, the sale to the Courthopes in 1627 and their sale in 1637 (ESRO SAS-CO/1/101). In 1612, Sir George Courthope, of Whiligh in Ticehurst, had married Alice, the daughter of George and Frances Rivers (above). In 1639 it was acquired by Benjamin Tichborne and John Maynard who sold it again after two years, and though working in 1653 the forge was ruined by 1664. Its survival is suggested by a reference of 1700 to a road to Cansiron forge (ESRO FA 374).
Site Description: Bay:
L 130m H 2.5/2m. Breached by stream at S end.
Water system:
Pond dry. Spillway probably at present stream.
Working area:
Tilt hammer shaft and wooden anvil base (now in Anne of Cleves Museum, Lewes) found during setting of present electricity pylon. Forge bottoms and cinder in stream. Much glassy slag at N end of bay.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 2.5 Bay Length (m.): 130
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 229-30)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 321-2, 384)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Lists of Furnaces and Forges of 1664. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. First series, 8. pp. 2-7
(for this site see page(s) 5)

Persons with known connections to this site: Barton, Richard - Owner bef 1587-aft 1589
Bowyer, Frances - Co-owner 1578-bef 1587
Bowyer, William - Owner bef 1563-78
Browne, Thomas - Lessee/ironmaster 1587-9
Courthope, George - Owner 1627-37
Manning, Richard - Owner bef 1587-aft 1589
Maynard, John - Co-owner 1639-41
Rivers, George - Co-owner 1578-bef 1587
Streatfeild, Richard - Lessee/ironmaster 1589-98?
Tichborne, Benjamin - Co-owner 1639-41
Turner, Sackville - Owner 1613-27
Weston, Michael - Tenant/ironmaster bef 1574-8

Site Name: Card's Wood Parish: Rotherfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5640 3210
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: Fragments of glazed furnace wall, formed of laid coils of clay, were found, together with fragments of tap slag, downstream at TQ 560322.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References:

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Carr's Wood Parish: Maresfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Ouse
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4350 2800
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Iron Age
Century: 1BC Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 1
Persons Involved in Discovery: S. E. Winbolt (1936)
References: Schubert, H. R.. (1957) History of the British Iron and Steel Industry. Routledge. London
(for this site see page(s) 36)

Pettitt, J.. (1980) Wealden iron in Maresfield. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 17. pp. 8-9
(for this site see page(s) 8)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Carter's Farm Parish: Pett
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 8920 1450
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 1
Persons Involved in Discovery: Zoe Vahey
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1999) Romano-British iron production in the Sussex and Kent Weald: a review of current data. Historical Metallurgy. 33, no. 2. pp. 68-72
(for this site see page(s) 71)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Castle Hill, Home Farm Parish: Rotherfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5597 2803
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: 01 Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 2
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1999) Romano-British iron production in the Sussex and Kent Weald: a review of current data. Historical Metallurgy. 33, no. 2. pp. 68-72
(for this site see page(s) 71)

Cattell, C. S.. (1970) Preliminary research findings relating to the bloomery period of the iron industry of the upper basin of the eastern Rother (East Sussex). Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group. 4. 1. pp. 18-20
(for this site see page(s) 20)

Cattell, C. S.. (1971) A note on the dating of bloomeries in the upper basin of the Eastern Rother. Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group. 5. 2. pp. 76

anon.. (1972) Investigations by the Buxted team. Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 3. pp. 10-12
(for this site see page(s) 13)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 303)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Catsfield Furnace Parish: Catsfield
District: Rother River Basin: Asten
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7320 1150
Site Type: Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16 Earliest Date: 1567
Latest Date: 1567  
Dating evidence: The furnace is mentioned (Upton 1981: 16-17) as part of the manor of Bexhill, owned by the Sackvilles, in 1567. It is not otherwise known (ESRO photocopy Acc 2631 of original in KHLC U269/M20). William Gardner's map of Sussex 1795 shows corn-mill pond.
Site Description: Bay:
L 92m H 0.5m. Breached by stream at S end. Apparent 18m projection to W, along N bank of stream.
Water system:
Pond dry.
Working area:
Possibly at levelled area at S end of bay of stream. Small amount of glassy slag in stream and bank, with horizontal timbers, all below c.1m silt.
Re-use:
Corn mill (250m downstream); the mill pond covered the furnace site.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 0.5 Bay Length (m.): 92
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 322)

Upton, J. (1981) Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd ser. 1. pp. 16-17
(for this site see page(s) 16-17)

Persons with known connections to this site: Harve, John - collier in 1576
Russell, Christmas - iron worker in 1576
Sackville, Thomas - Owner in 1567

Site Name: Cave Wood Parish: Maresfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Ouse
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4590 2490
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Tebbutt, C. F.. (1982) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 2. pp. 6-10
(for this site see page(s) 10)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Chant Farm Parish: Rotherfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5580 3040
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 256)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Chantlers Farm Parish: Hartfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4704 3869
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Medieval
Century: 13, 12 Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: On west side of small stream, adjacent to footpath crossing bridge (location updated 18/10/2008)
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Pettitt, J., Archibald, P. & Tebbutt, C. F.. (1970) Two dated bloomery sites in the Weald. Sussex Notes and Queries. 17. 5. pp. 167-168
(for this site see page(s) 167-8)

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2009) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. Second series, 29. pp. 3-6
(for this site see page(s) 4)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Chapel Farm Parish: Lenham
District: Maidstone River Basin: Medway
County: Kent OS Reference: TQ 9080 5030
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: 02 Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 1
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Kaminski, J. (1995) The environmental implications of Romano-British iron production in the Weald. Unpublished PhD. thesis. University of Reading

Miles, A.. (1974) Bloomery slag at Lenham, Kent. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 7. pp. 8

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Chillies Farm Parish: Buxted
District: Wealden River Basin: Ouse
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4990 2790
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: A thick scatter of slag and cinder on the surface of a field was tested by trial excavation and proved to be 40-50cm deep, composed of tap slag, furnace lining material, green-glazed sandstone, and a broken clay tuyere containing a plug of solid slag. One sherd of pottery was found which appeared to be of the South-Eastern B type that was in use in this area in the first half of the first century AD: cf. Minepit Wood, Pippingford Park; this may date to just before or just after the invasion of AD 43. There was also a sherd of second-century samian.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: anon.. (1975) Inventory of Iron Sites visited by WIRG. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 8. pp. 8-44
(for this site see page(s) 8)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Chingley Forge Parish: Goudhurst
District: Tunbridge Wells River Basin: Medway
County: Kent OS Reference: TQ 6820 3350
Site Type: Forge Period: Medieval, Modern
Century: 16, 13, 17, 18 Earliest Date: 1588
Latest Date: 1726  
Dating evidence: Built after 1574 but before 1588, when Richard Ballard was tenant of Henry Darell (Staffs. RO D593/5/4/28/3). Darell sold the property, including the forge, to Sir Edward Culpeper in 1589, who sold it on to Edmund Pelham of Catsfield, who already had an interest in the furnace, and James Thatcher (uncle of Culpeper), of Priesthawes in Westham, in 1595 (Loder 1907, 52-3). The overflowing of the pond is referred to in 1599 (ESRO DYK 712). In 1628-9 pig iron was brought from Snape furnace (ESRO Q1/EW.1/15.1.1629), the wording implying that Alexander Thomas, who brought the pig from Snape, was also the lessee of Chingley. By 1637 William Darell, part-owner of Scotney and Chingley, leased the forge to Henry Darell (TNA SP23/67/811). The highway and water course to the forge were mentioned in 1653 (ESRO, DYK/503). It was not mentioned in the lists of 1653 or 1664, but was in operation in 1717, producing 46 tons. It was marked on Budgen's map of 1724. John Legas was tenant in 1726 (KHLC U409/T2).
Site Description: (Site now flooded by Bewl Reservoir. Notes of features before excavation and inundation)
Bay:
L 100m H barely discernible. Breached by stream at W end.
Water system:
Pond dry.
Working area:
Cinder seen at head of tail-race before excavation (Report: Crossley 1975b.).
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 0.1 Bay Length (m.): 100
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details: see Crossley D. W.. (1975) The Bewl Valley Ironworks. Royal Archaeological Institute.
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hulme, E. W.. (1929) Statistical History of the Iron Trade of England and Wales, 1717-1750. Transactions of the Newcomen Society. 9. pp. 12-35
(for this site see page(s) 21, 25)

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 277)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Bewl Valley Ironworks. Royal Archaeological Institute

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 322)

Loder, G. W. E.. (1907) Wakehurst Place. privately printed. London
(for this site see page(s) 52)

Persons with known connections to this site: Ballard, Richard - Lessee/ironmaster in 1588
Culpeper, Edward - Owner 1589-95
Darell, Arthur - Owner ?-1720
Darell, George - Owner 1720-aft 1726
Darell, Henry - Owner/ironmaster bef 1588-9
Darell, Henry - Lessee/ironmaster 1637-?
Darell, William - Part owner c.1614-1638
Darell, William - Owner 1638-1701
Legas, John - Lessee/ironmaster in 1726
Pelham, Edmund - Co-owner 1595-1606
Thatcher, James - Co-owner 1595-1614?
Thomas, Alexander - ?Lessee/ironmaster in 1628-9

Site Name: Chingley Furnace Parish: Goudhurst
District: Tunbridge Wells River Basin: Medway
County: Kent OS Reference: TQ 6850 3270
Site Type: Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16 Earliest Date: 1565
Latest Date: 1597  
Dating evidence: Built after 1558, the furnace supplied cast iron to Robertsbridge steel works in 1565 (KHLC, U1475 B4/1; Crossley 1975, 207). In 1574 Thomas Darell owned Chingley furnace, with Thomas Dyke as tenant. Dyke took a new lease for 41 years in 1579 which he assigned to Richard Ballard and his sons in 1597 (ESRO, DYK/607), contradicting the statement in 1588 when the furnace had been described as "fallen downe and utterlie decayed" (Staffs. RO D593/S/4/283).
Site Description: (Site now flooded by Bewl Reservoir. Notes of features before excavation and inundation).
Bay:
L 50m H 2.5/2.5m. Breached by stream towards S end.
Water system:
Pond dry.
Working area:
Waterlogged, with furnace debris seen before excavation in angle between dam and northern hill-slope.(Report as for Chingley forge.)
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 2.5 Bay Length (m.): 50
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details: See Crossley, D. W., The Bewl Valley Ironworks (1975).
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 276)

Crossley, D. W.. (1975) The Bewl Valley Ironworks. Royal Archaeological Institute
(for this site see page(s) 207)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 322)

Persons with known connections to this site: Ballard, Richard - Co-lessee/ironmaster 1597-1620?
Ballard, Richard - Co-lessee/ironmaster 1597-1620?
Ballard, Thomas - Co-lessee/ironmaster 1597-1620?
Cossam, Adams - iron worker in 1543
Darell, Henry - (Co-)owner bef 1579-c.1610
Darrell, Thomas - (Co-)owner bef 1574-98
Deprowne, Valentyne - iron worker in 1544
Dyke, Thomas - Lessee/ironmaster bef 1574-97
Harchaunt, William - iron worker in 1544
Hoke, John - iron worker in 1543
Jeffrey, Bartholomew - iron worker in 1543
Knell, Richard - iron worker in 1543
Loye, John - iron worker in 1543
May, Thomas - Ironmaster in 1543
Pelham, Edmund - Co-owner bef 1579-1606
Tollett, Jerman - iron worker in 1544

Site Name: Chiswell's Farm Parish: Chiddingly
District: Wealden River Basin: Cuckmere
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5510 1610
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Tebbutt, C. F.. (1981) Field Reports. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 1. pp. 20-23
(for this site see page(s) 22)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Chitcombe Parish: Brede
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 8140 2110
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: This is a very large site, extending east-west some 600m, and described by Rock as being comparable with Beauport Park. Pottery finds indicate a broadly similar date range. No significant excavations have been carried out on the site. However, there are remains of masonry, mentioned by Rock, still visible, and these, together with numerous finds of tiles in the vicinity, indicate the existence of substantial buildings.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: Yes Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 3
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1999) Romano-British iron production in the Sussex and Kent Weald: a review of current data. Historical Metallurgy. 33, no. 2. pp. 68-72
(for this site see page(s) 70)

Austen, E.. (1947) Brede: the story of a Sussex Parish. Adams & Son. Rye
(for this site see page(s) 87)

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 345-7)

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1988) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 8. pp. 2-11
(for this site see page(s) 2-5)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 296)

Rock, J.. (1879) Ancient Cinderheaps in East Sussex. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 29. pp. 167-180
(for this site see page(s) 175-80)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Chithurst (Iping) Forge Parish: Iping
District: Chichester River Basin: Arun
County: West Sussex OS Reference: SU 8460 2360
Site Type: Forge Period: Modern
Century: Earliest Date: 1620
Latest Date: 1632  
Dating evidence: Sir Peter Bettesworth is noted as owner of a forge and furnace in lping in 1632 in a dispute over the supply of charcoal, begun two years earlier, with his clerk, Roger Pearson (TNA, C 78/416/6).
Site Description: Bay:
L 100m H pond in water/3.25m.
Water system:
Present spillway at E end. Water-filled hollow near centre of bay may be site of wheelpit.
Working area:
Small quantity of forge cinder in bank of black soil between spillway and hollow.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 3.25 Bay Length (m.): 100
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 430)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 323)

Persons with known connections to this site: Bettesworth, Peter - Owner bef 1620?-aft 1635?
Duffield, Richard - finer in 1620
Pearson, Roger - Clerk bef 1630-32

Site Name: Chittingly Furnace Parish: West Hoathly
District: Mid-Sussex River Basin: Ouse
County: West Sussex OS Reference: TQ 3460 3220
Site Type: Furnace Period: Modern
Century: 16 Earliest Date: 1546
Latest Date: 1574  
Dating evidence: This furnace was operated by Thomas Michell in 1546. In that year he supplied 65 tons of pig to Sheffield forge (Giuseppi 1912:294), and Straker notes that he held Chittingly manor in 1536. He mentioned one of his ironworkers in his will of 1551 (TNA PROB11/34/438). He was probably succeeded by his nephew, Edmund, and then the latter's son, also Thomas, who is the 'Mr Michael' in the 1574 lists, his tenant being John Blacket.
Site Description: Bay:
L 90m H pond in water/3.25m. Curves away from pond.
Water system:
From overspill at W end the stream flows E along downstream side of bay to about its centre where it turns S, perhaps to follow original tail-race.
Working area:
Near centre of W half of bay is pear-shaped mound, probably the furnace site. Steeply rising ground to W may indicate a loading platform. Heavy scatter of glassy slag over whole area.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): 3.25 Bay Length (m.): 90
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 408)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 323)

Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2008) History of the Iron Industry in West Hoathly. West Hoathly Local History Group. West Hoathly
(for this site see page(s) 17)

Teesdale, E. B.. (1986) The 1574 lists of ironworks in the Weald. A re-examination. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. Second series, 6. pp. 7-41
(for this site see page(s) 30-1)

Dunkin, E. H. W.. (1914) Sussex Manors, Advowsons etc. vol. 1 A-L. Sussex Record Society Vol. 19. Lewes
(for this site see page(s) 98)

Persons with known connections to this site: Blacket, John - Lessee/ironmaster in 1574
Browne, unknown - iron worker in 1551
Gayne, Peter - iron worker in 1560 & 1563
Meshowe, John - iron worker in 1560
Michell, Edmund - Owner/ironmaster 1551-9
Michell, Thomas - Owner bef 1546-51
Michell, Thomas - Owner 1559-aft 1576
Rossoll, Crystofer - iron worker in 1572
Tollett, Jerman - iron worker 1549-52
Tollye, Jonne - iron worker in 1576
Tullye, George - iron worker 1560-72
Tyler, Nicholas - founder in 1552

Site Name: Church Farm Field Parish: Guestling
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 8560 1450
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: 02 Earliest Date: 0
Latest Date: 0  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: The production site at Church Farm Field (TQ 856145) is located on Ashdown Sand with a fault expressing the junction with the Fairlight Clay to the south and east. An extensive deposit of slag is evident, in association with Romano-British ceramics of the second century and tile. This could imply the presence of a semi-permanent building in the vicinity.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology: Ashdown Beds
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 2
Persons Involved in Discovery: HAARG
References: Kaminski, J. (1995) The environmental implications of Romano-British iron production in the Weald. Unpublished PhD. thesis. University of Reading
(for this site see page(s) 274-5)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Church Field, Old Place Parish: Icklesham
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 8806 1680
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: 02, 01 Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: The bloomery site at Old Place Farm (TQ 878165) is located approximately 100 m NW of Icklesham Church. The site is on a ridge of Ashdown Sand, capped with Wadhurst Clay to the south and overlooking the Brede valley to the north. The presence of Romano-British industrial activity was first recorded by Homan (1937: 247) after extraction of building sand at Icklesham in 1936-7 revealed the presence of six bloomery furnaces. However, the data obtained and published by Homan was recovered only after the site was destroyed. The finds from the site included "a clay tuyere 5.5 inches long and 7/8 of an inch diameter, bell mouthed at one end a sherd of Belgic pottery and a denarius of Hadrian" (AD. 117-138) which appeared to have been exposed to considerable heat (ibid.). The presence of a Belgic ware on the site suggests LPRIA activity in the vicinity, however, in the light of the later finds of Romano-British ceramics and the absence of the finds from the 1937 archive, the possibility that the "Belgic ware" could have been a south-eastern ware or East Sussex Wealden ware must be addressed.

The site plan from Icklesham (Homan 1937: 247) reveals the remains of six furnaces set in a depression surrounded by a "wall of hard sandstone", with the furnaces located around the circumference. The furnaces consisted of "funnel shaped or bowl shaped excavations in the sub-soil and penetrated a short distance into the sand rock." The maximum output from the six furnaces could have been considerable considering the comparable evidence from a six furnace unit at Holbeanwood, but, the remaining slag bank was not substantial. It appears that the slag was used for the metalling of roads in the surrounding iron-working complexes.

Further finds of burnt clay, in 1978, immediately to the south of the quarry at Old Place Farm, prompted trial trenching by the Hastings Area Archaeological Group.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: Yes CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details: The excavation, under the direction of Mrs. Zoe Vahey, resulted in the exposure of an ore-roasting hearth situated in a bed of slag. A second trench, adjacent to the 1978 excavation, opened in 1981, revealed a slag-metalled road, approximately 6.7 m wide, with steep cambers running slightly north of east. A ditch on the north side of the road cut into the sandstone bedrock. Romano-British ceramics were recovered both on the road surface and from the fill of the ditch.
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology: Ashdown Beds
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 2
Persons Involved in Discovery: W. McL. Homan
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1999) Romano-British iron production in the Sussex and Kent Weald: a review of current data. Historical Metallurgy. 33, no. 2. pp. 68-72
(for this site see page(s) 70)

Vahey, Z.. (1983) The Roman Road at Icklesham. HAARG Journal. 4 no. 2. pp. 3-28

Woodcock, A. (1988) Gazetteer of Prehistoric, Roman and Saxon sites in Romney Marsh and the surrounding area. Romney Marsh: Evolution, Occupation, Reclamation. Oxford University Committee for Archaeology Monograph 24. pp. 177-185

Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 340-1)

Cleere, H. F. and Crossley, D. W.. (1995) The iron industry of the Weald. Merton Priory Press. Cardiff
(for this site see page(s) 301)

Homan, W. McL.. (1937) Roman bloomery furnaces. Sussex Notes and Queries. 6. 8. pp. 247-248

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Cinder Field, Parrock Parish: Hartfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4590 3370
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Tebbutt, C. F.. (1975) An abandoned medieval industrial site at Parrock, Hartfield. Sussex Archaeological Collections. 113. pp. 146-151
(for this site see page(s) 146-51)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Cinder Gill Cottage Parish: Hellingly
District: Wealden River Basin: Cuckmere
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5741 1577
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: Dull, dark, heavy slag found in the bottom of ditch running N into Cinder Gill Cottage garden (Col. D. MacLeod)
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 383)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Cinder Mead, Basing Farm Parish: Forest Row
District: Wealden River Basin: Medway
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 4350 3960
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 223)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Cinder Wood Parish: East Hoathly
District: Wealden River Basin: Cuckmere
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5361 1706
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date: 0
Latest Date: 0  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (2001) Field Notes. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 2nd series, 21. pp. 2-8
(for this site see page(s) 3)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Cinderbank Parish: Icklesham
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 8716 1571
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: "Iron slag found here 1936, in a sandpit. The next field is called 'Cinderbank'"; Ordnance Survey record cards, 1951 (Antiquity no. TQ81NE5).
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 340-1)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Cinderbanks, Sidley Parish: Bexhill
District: Rother River Basin: Asten
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7440 0920
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 354)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Cinderburgh, Bellhurst Farm Parish: Etchingham
District: Rother River Basin: Rother
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 7210 2760
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: Straker, E. (1931) Wealden Iron. Bell. London
(for this site see page(s) 299)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Cinderfield Shaw Parish: East Hoathly
District: Wealden River Basin: Ouse
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5080 1730
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: No Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale):
Persons Involved in Discovery:
References: anon.. (1973) Inventory of Iron Sites visited by WIRG. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 6. pp. 17-31
(for this site see page(s) 4)

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Cinderfield, Mill View Farm Parish: Framfield
District: Wealden River Basin: Ouse
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5290 2190
Site Type: Bloomery Period: Roman
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description: Large concentration of slag in stream, bank and two fields; black soil, furnace lining and a few sherds of Samian ware.
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.): Bay Length (m.):
Excavation?: No CLBR: No
Samian pottery: Yes Cylindrical slag plugs: No
Excavation Details:
Lab Analysis of Residues:  
Geology:
Description of site vegetation:
Slag Heap Area (m. sq) : Slag heap grade (Hodgkinson Scale): 2
Persons Involved in Discovery: WIRG Buxted Team
References: Hodgkinson, J. S.. (1999) Romano-British iron production in the Sussex and Kent Weald: a review of current data. Historical Metallurgy. 33, no. 2. pp. 68-72
(for this site see page(s) 70)

Pettitt, J. et al. (1973) Reports of District Teams; Buxted. Wealden Iron, Bulletin of the Wealden Iron Research Group. 1st series, 5. pp. 13

Persons with known connections to this site:

Site Name: Cinderfield, Tanners Manor Parish: Heathfield and Waldron
District: Wealden River Basin: Cuckmere
County: East Sussex OS Reference: TQ 5630 1750
Site Type: Bloomery Period:
Century: Earliest Date:
Latest Date:  
Dating evidence:
Site Description:
Scheduled Monument Number: HER Reference:
Bloomery admin.: No Gun Foundry: No
Sickle mill: No Wire mill: No
Bay Height (m.):